Sunday, 28 April 2013

Jurchen Geography

Having taken a look at a fragment of Tangut geography a couple of weeks ago, I thought it would be interesting to do something similar with Jin dynasty (1115–1234) place names written in the Jurchen script. However, although Jurchen is relatively well deciphered due to the survival of several manuscript copies of the Ming dynasty Sino-Jurchen Vocabulary, there are only a very few extant examples of Jin dynasty Jurchen inscriptions and only a handful of Jurchen manuscripts, so there aren't really any unstudied fragments of Jurchen text that I can analyse the geographical place names of. Therefore, I have decided to simply make some tables of all the Jurchen names for Jin dynasty place names that I can find in the extant sources. The vast majority of place names listed below come from two monumental inscriptions, one recording the names of successful candidates in the palace examination of 1224 (D) and one recording the names of benefactors of a Buddhist temple constructed in 1138 or 1153 (E).


Rubbing of a monument listing the names and places of residence of successful candidates in the palace examination of 1224 (Nüzhen jinshi timing bei 女真進士題名碑)

Photograph at the National Museum of China by 秋天 (国家博物馆展出的女真族文物)



Index of Jin Dynasty Jurchen Place Names


Countries

Jurchen Name Chinese Name Country Source

amba-an antʃu-un guru-un
大金國 Great Jin E

duli-la guru-un
中國 China A

so-gor guru-un
高麗國 Korea G

Capitals

Jurchen Name Chinese Name Location Source

ʃaŋ-giŋ
Superior Capital
上京
Modern Acheng 阿城, Harbin, Heilongjiang B

wə-gi giŋ
C

dʒu-uŋ du
Central Metropolis
中都
Modern Beijing D

dʒul-ə giŋ
Eastern Capital
東京
Modern Liaoyang 遼陽, Liaoning D

dʒu-uŋ gin
Middle Capital
中京
[Renamed the Northern Capital 北京 in 1153]
Modern Ningcheng County 寧城縣, Inner Mongolia E

Circuits

Jurchen Name Chinese Name Location Source

dai-mi-iŋ fu wo-on
Daming Superior Prefecture Circuit
大名府路
D

duŋ-fi-iŋ fu wo-on
Dongping Superior Prefecture Circuit
東平府路
D

xo-bei dʒul-ə wo-on
Hebei East Circuit
河北東路
D

xo-bei furi-ə wo-on
Hebei West Circuit
河北西路
D

xala-an wo-on
Helan Circuit
曷懶路
Seat at modern Kilju County, North Hamgyong, North Korea D, E

lu-uŋ-an fu wo-on
Long'an Superior Prefecture Circuit
隆安府路
D

uli-ə gin wo-on
Northern Capital Circuit
北京路
D

uli-ə dʒul-ə wo-on
Northeast Circuit
東北路
D

uli-ə furi-ə wo-on
Northwest Circuit
西北路
D

fo-su-wo-on
Posu Circuit
婆速路
Seat at modern Jiuliancheng 九連城, Dandong 丹東, Liaoning D

fan-ti furi-ə wo-on
Southwest Circuit
西南路
D

su-fin wo-on
Supin Circuit
速頻路
Seat at modern Ussuriysk, Primorsky Krai, Russia E

çi-yŋ dʒou wo-on
Xiong Prefecture Circuit
雄州路
D

il-min dʒou wo-on
Yilimin Prefecture Circuit
移里閔州路
D

Circuits listed in the History of the Jin Dynasty chs. 24–26:

  • Superior Capital Circuit 上京路
  • Xianping Circuit 咸平路
  • Eastern Capital Circuit 東京路
  • Northern Capital Circuit 北京路
  • Western Capital Circuit 西京路
  • Middle Capital Circuit 中都路
  • Southern Capital Circuit 南京路
  • Hebei East Circuit 河北東路
  • Hebei West Circuit 河北西路
  • Shandong East Circuit 山東東路
  • Shandong West Circuit 山東西路
  • Daming Superior Prefecture Circuit 大名府路
  • Hedong North Circuit 河東北路
  • Hedong South Circuit 河東南路
  • Metropolitan Superior Prefecture Circuit 京兆府路
  • Fengxiang Circuit 鳳翔路
  • Fuyan Circuit 鄜延路
  • Qingyuan Circuit 慶原路
  • Lintao Circuit 臨洮路

Superior Prefectures

Jurchen Name Chinese Name Location Source

dai-mi-iŋ fu
Daming Superior Prefecture
大名府
Under Daming Superior Prefecture Circuit (modern Daming County 大名縣, Hebei) (D)

duŋ-fi-iŋ fu
Dongping Superior Prefecture
東平府
Under Dongping Superior Prefecture Circuit (modern Dongping County 東平縣, Shandong) (D)

lu-uŋ-an fu
Long'an Superior Prefecture
隆安府
Under Long'an Superior Prefecture Circuit (modern Nong'an County 農安縣, Jilin) (D)

tai-ŋ-y-iɛn fu
Taiyuan Superior Prefecture
太原府
Under Hedong North Circuit (modern Taiyuan 太原, Shanxi) C

dʒa-aŋ-dei fu
Zhangde Superior Prefecture
彰德府
Under Hebei West Circuit (modern Anyang 安陽, Henan) F

Prefectures

Jurchen Name Chinese Name Location Source

xutu-ŋgai-ga-ma dʒou
Deshengtuo Prefecture
得勝陀州
Under Superior Capital Circuit C

fun dʒou
Feng Prefecture
豐州
Under Western Capital Circuit (modern Hohhot, Inner Mongolia) I

mi-iŋ dʒou
Ming Prefecture
洺州
Under Hebei West Circuit (modern Wei County 威縣, Hebei) D

çi-yŋ dʒou
Xiong Prefecture
雄州
Under Xiong Prefecture Circuit (modern Xiong County 雄縣, Hebei) D

il-min dʒou
Yilimin Prefecture
移里閔州
Under Yilimin Prefecture Circuit D

Counties

Jurchen Name Chinese Name Location Source

lia-ao jaŋ çiɛn
Liaoyang County
遼陽縣
Under Eastern Capital (modern Liaoyang County 遼陽縣, Liaoning) D

çy dʒou çiɛn
Quzhou County
曲周縣
Under Ming Prefecture (modern Quzhou County 曲周縣, Hebei) D

y-iɛn fi-iŋ çiɛn
Yuanping County
宛平縣
Under Central Metropolis (modern Fengtai District 豐台區, Beijing) D

Meng'an (1,000 Households)

Jurchen Name Chinese Name Location Source

ei-je-ku miŋgan
Aiyeku Meng'an
愛也窟猛安
Under Supin Circuit E

tʃən-tʃun miŋgan
Chanchun Meng'an
僝蠢猛安
Under Dongping Superior Prefecture Circuit D

tʃu-ton miŋgan
Chutuan Meng'an
出團猛安
Under Northern Capital Circuit D

du-tə-gia miŋgan
Dutejia Meng'an
都忒甲猛安
Under Hebei West Circuit D

ədu-ə miŋgan
Edu'e Meng'an
訛都厄猛安
Under Hebei East Circuit D

go-fa miŋgan
Guofa Meng'an
果法猛安
G

xala-an miŋgan
Helan Meng'an
曷懶猛安
Under Helan Circuit D

xoldo-on miŋgan
Hetuan Meng'an
和團猛安
Under Helan Circuit E

xodʒo-gi-uei-ru miŋgan
Hezhuojiwei'er Meng'an
和卓吉委兒猛安
Under Daming Superior Prefecture Circuit D

xu-[?] miŋgan
Hu[...] Meng'an
忽囗猛安
Under Hebei West Circuit D

mei-giɛn miŋgan
Meijian Meng'an
梅堅猛安
Under Xiong Prefecture Circuit D

nu-uei-gi bira miŋgan
Neiji River Meng'an
内吉河猛安
Under Hebei East Circuit D

fu-di-i ali-in miŋgan
Pudi Mountain Meng'an
蒲底山猛安
Dongping Superior Prefecture Circuit D

ʃan-tʃun miŋgan
Shanchun Meng'an
山春猛安
Under Hebei West Circuit D

ʃə-ə miŋgan
She'e Meng'an
舍厄猛安
Under Hebei East Circuit D

ʃïra-gu ali-in miŋgan
Shilagu Mountain Meng'an
失剌古山猛安
Under Long'an Superior Prefecture Circuit D

ʃï-tə miŋgan
Shite Meng'an
石忒猛安
Under Dongping Superior Prefecture Circuit D

sun-gar-i-da-xa miŋgan
Songgalidahe Meng'an
宋噶里荅合猛安
Under Northwest Circuit D

su-uŋ-gulu ali-in miŋgan
Songgelu Mountain Meng'an
宋割魯山猛安
Under Posu Circuit D

su-fin miŋgan
Supin Meng'an
速頻猛安
Under Supin Circuit E

tai-ʃïn miŋgan
Taishen Meng'an
泰申猛安
Under Helan Circuit D

tum-un bi-xan miŋgan
Tumen Bihan Meng'an
徒門必罕猛安
Under Xiong Prefecture Circuit D, E

wo-xa miŋgan
Wohe Meng'an
斡合猛安
Under Supin Circuit E

u-da-un miŋgan
Wudawen Meng'an
兀答溫猛安
E
Yahuohuoluoheda Meng'an
牙獲火羅合打猛安
S

jara-an bira miŋgan
Yalan River Meng'an
押懶河猛安
Under Southwest Circuit D

dʒa-xa-gi-tuan miŋgan
Zhahejitun Meng'an
扎合吉屯猛安
Under Northeast Circuit D

dzo-ʃïn bi-xan miŋgan
Zuoshen Bihan Meng'an
左申必罕猛安
Under Helan Circuit E

[?]-xoŋ miŋgan
[?]huan Meng'an
囗歡猛安
Under Daming Superior Prefecture Circuit D
...
[...]-dan miŋgan
[...]dan Meng'an
囗丹猛安
Under Daming Superior Prefecture Circuit D

[...] bira miŋgan
[...] River Meng'an
囗河猛安
Under Yilimin Prefecture Circuit D

Mouke (100 Households)

Jurchen Name Chinese Name Location Source

da-lo-gi mou-mu-xuwə
Daluoji Mouke
荅羅吉謀克
Under Helan Circuit E

fa-an-r bi-xan mou-mu-xuwə
Fan'an Bihan Mouke
番安必罕謀克
H

xala-an mou-mu-xuwə
Helan Mouke
曷懶謀克
Under Helan Meng'an, Helan Circuit E

ga-fu mou-mu-xuwə
Hepu Mouke
合蒲謀克
Under Aiyeku Meng'an, Supin Circuit E

xa-tou xalu-un bira mou-mu-xə
Hetouhulun River Mouke
河頭胡論河謀克
Under Nalinhezhu'asu Meng'an (納璘河术阿速猛安) S

xodʒo-xai-lo-on mou-mu-xə
Hezhuohailuan Mouke
和拙海欒謀克
Under Yahuohuoluoheda Meng'an S

giaxu-un ali-in mou-mu-gə
Jiahun Mountain Mouke
夾渾山謀克
S

kə-ʃïn-ən ali-in mou-mu-xə
Kechen Mountain Mouke
可陳山謀克
Under Aiyeku Meng'an, Supin Circuit S
Milidie River Mouke
迷里迭河謀克
S

ʃə-ə mou-mu-xuwə
She'e Mouke
舍厄謀克
Under Zuoshen Bihan Meng'an, Helan Circuit E

ʃïri-ə mou-mu-xuwə
Shili'e Mouke
失里厄謀克
Under Aiyeku Meng'an, Supin Circuit E

ʃou-gi mou-mu-xuwə
Shouji Mouke
受吉謀克
Under Helan Circuit E
Supakun Mountain Mouke
速怕昆山謀克
S

on-go-on-su mou-mu-xuwə
Wanguansu Mouke
萬官速謀克
E

in-gai-da bira mou-mu-gə
Yigaida River Mouke
移改達葛河謀克
S

Villages

Jurchen Name Chinese Name Location Source

bu-gu ga-ʃa
Bugu Village (Deer Village)
卜古村
Under She'e Mouke E

xə-tʃə-xei ga-ʃa
Hechehei Village
赫車黑村
Under Hepu Mouke E

dʒan-gu-tʃï ga-ʃa
Zhanguchi Village
站古赤村
E

[?]-aŋ ga-ʃa
[?]ang Village
囗村
E


Sources

  • A : Sino-Jurchen Vocabulary of the Bureau of Interpreters (Nǚzhēn Yìyǔ 女真譯語)
  • B : Jurchen Character Book (Nüzhen Zishu 女真字書)
  • C : Monument commemorating the victory of Emperor Taizu of Jin over the Khitans in 1114 (Da-Jin desheng tuosong bei 大金得勝陀頌碑) [1185]
  • D : Monument recording the names of successful candidates for the degree of jinshi in 1224 (Nüzhen jinshi timing bei 女真進士題名碑) [1224]
  • E : Monument commemorating the construction of a Buddhist temple (Qingyuanjun Nüzhen guoshu bei 慶源郡女真國書碑) [1138–1153]
  • F : Monument commemorating a picnic held by Aotun Liangbi (Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei 奧屯良弼餞飲碑) [1210]
  • G : Rock inscription commemorating the presentation of a Buddhist statue (Beiqing Nüzhen guoshu moya 北青女真國書摩崖) [1218]
  • H : Two rock inscriptions at Hailong (Hailong Nüzhen guoshu moya 海龍女真國書摩崖) [1167]
  • I : Inscriptions on the Pagoda of Ten Thousand Copies of the Flower Garland Sutra (萬部華嚴經塔), Hohhot, Inner Mongolia
  • S : Inscription on the side of an official seal


Google Map of Jurchen Places

To accompany this post I have created a map of Jin dynasty Jurchen geography on Google Maps, which shows the place names in Jurchen script if you click on the tags. I have not included any Meng'an (1,000 household) or Mouke (100 household) units as their precise locations are largely unknown.


Google Maps map showing Jin Dynasty locations with place names in Jurchen


2 comments:

zenocharm said...

As addition to Jurchen's geography - the river 苏滨水 Subinshu is mentioned in Jinshi. Ussuriysk is located at this river (now Razdol'naya river).

Andrew West said...

Hi Charm, thanks for the suggestion. It would be interesting to create a general map of Jin dynasty geography, but for this bog post I have restricted myself to places for which the Jurchen name in Jurchen script is known, which is why features such as the River Subin are not included.