Monday, 1 March 2010

The Ogham Stones of Wales




Wales has the greatest number of Ogham stones of any region outside of Ireland (35 stones with definite Ogham inscriptions), but as can be seen from the map below, they are unevenly distributed, with large numbers in the south-west and the south-east, and only a handful in the north :


Location of Ogham Stones in Wales

Red tags mark the sites of certain Ogham inscriptions (a dot indicates that the stone is in situ)
Yellow tags mark the sites of dubious or unconfirmed Ogham inscriptions
Blue tags mark museums or other sites where Ogham stones are held

The modern names of Post-Roman Welsh kingdoms are overprinted in white


Distribution of Ogham Stones by Kingdom

  • Dyfed (Devet) : 22 certain stones (BRAW1/1, BRAW3/1, BRIDL/1, CALDY/1, CDWYR/1, CILGN/1, CLYDI/1, CLYDI/3, EGLWC/1, JRDNS/1, LDEIL/1, LDWKE/1, LFRN2/1, LGELR/1, LWNIO/1, MTHRY/1, NEVRN/1, NEVRN/2, RHDDL/1, SDOGM/1, SDOGW/1, STNTN/1) and 3 doubtful stones (HENLL/1, LDYSL/1, SPTTL/1).
  • Ceredigion (Cereticiaun) : 1 doubtful stone (LARTH/1).
  • Glywysing (Gleguising) : 2 certain stones (KENFG/1, LOUGH/1) and 2 doubtful stones (MARG1/1, SISHM/1)
  • Brycheiniog (Brecheniauc) : 8 certain stones (ABHYD/1, CRAI/1, CRCKH/1, DFYNG/1, PONTS/1, TCSTL/1, TRLLW/1, YFLL2/1) and 3 doubtful stones (TIRPH/1, Maen Llia, Llanfihangel-Cwmdu).
  • Gwynedd (Guined) : 3 certain stones (BRYNK/1, CLOCG/1, LFAEL/1) and 2 doubtful stones (PTREF/1, TFLYS/1).

The distribution of Ogham stones in Wales closely reflects the geopolitical situation of post-Roman Britain. The majority of stones are concentrated in the area of south-west Wales that belonged to the Kingdom of Dyfed (early 5th century through to the early 10th century), which was the major centre for Irish settlement in Wales during the post-Roman period. During the late 4th century and early 5th century large numbers of the Déisi crossed from the Waterford area of Ireland to Britain, and settled in the land of the Demetae in south-west Wales. Their leaders displaced the original British ruling class, and founded the kingdom of Dyfed, which is believed to have been bounded on the north by the River Teifi and on the east by the River Tywi. Dyfed was neighboured on the north by the Brythonic Kingdom of Ceredigion, and to the south-east by the Brythonic Kingdom of Glywysing, but to the east lay the Kingdom of Brycheiniog (largely corresponding to the area of modern Brecknockshire), which had also been founded by Irish raiders, and was ruled by kings of Irish descent.


Irish Settlements in Western Britain

Source : Lloyd Laing, The Archaeology of Late Celtic Britain and Ireland, c. 400–1200 AD (Methuen, 1975) Fig. 1


Over twenty Ogham stones are found within the territory of Dyfed, including a couple of stones which are just on the other side of the River Teifi, in erstwhile Cardiganshire (RHDDL/1 and LDYSL/1), but the modern course of the river clearly deviates from the course the river took fifteen hundred years ago, and they would originally have been on the Dyfed side of the river. At least eight Ogham stones are also found in the territory of Brycheiniog, testifying to the strength of Irish settlement in these two areas, and evidence that the Irish language was widely spoken here, at least by the ruling elite and land owners. There are also two Ogham stones east of the River Tywi, in what would probably have been the territory of Glywysing, suggesting that Irish settlement pushed eastwards from Dyfed into the western part of its Brythonic neighbour. To the north of Dyfed, in the territory of Ceredigion there is only one doubtful Ogham stone (LARTH/1).

In contrast to the large number of Ogham stones in South Wales (at least 32), there are only three certain Ogham inscriptions in North Wales, all within the territory of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. There had been extensive Irish raiding and settlement in the north of Wales as well as in the south, especially in the Llŷn Peninsula (the name of which is derived from the Laigin, the men of Leinster) and Anglesey, but during the late 4th century and early 5th century there was strong resistence to the Irish incursions, led by Cunedda (founder of the kingdom of Gwynedd), and the Irish did not manage to gain control of any of the kingdoms in the north. So it is perhaps to be expected that there are a few Ogham stones in the area of Gwynedd, but not very many, reflecting the presence, but not dominance, of Irish settlers in the region.

The Ordnance Survey Map of Britain in the Dark Ages (first published 1935) gives a very useful overview of the archaeological remains in Britain during the period 410–871, and comes with indexes which give the exact location of each feature marked on the map. In the case of Celtic memorial stones (with or without Ogham inscriptions), where possible the index on pages 50 and 51 provides a reference to Nash-Williams' The Early Christian Monuments of Wales (Cardiff, 1950), from which it is possible to identify the stone in question in the CISP database.


Ordnance Survey : Wales in the Dark Ages

Source : Map of Britain in the Dark Ages 2nd Edition (Ordnance Survey, 1966)


Key (selected features only)

  • = Bishop's seats
  • = Monastic sites
  • = Hermitages
  • = Sites of battles
  • = Forts
  • = Memorial stones (5th–6th centuries)
  • = Memorial stones (5th–6th centuries) with ogams
  • + = Minor Christian monuments in Wales (7th–9th centuries)
  • = Free-standing crosses
  • = Casual finds in Celtic area
  • = Imported Mediterranean pottery
  • = Frankish-Gaulish ware

Blue = Celtic
Black = Pagan Anglo-Saxon
Red = Christian Anglo-Saxon


This map is very useful, but strangely enough there are a number of memorial stones in both Cornwall and Wales that are marked as having an Ogham inscription for which I can find no evidence for actually having an Ogham inscription :

  • Lancarffe House, Bodmin, Cornwall (LCARF/1)
  • Llanfaelog, Anglesey (LFAEL/1) [not marked as an Ogham stone on the actual map, but indicated as having an Ogham inscription in the index of Memorial Stones on page 50]
  • Llanfihangel-Cwmdu, Brecknockshire (No CISP entry)
  • Ystradfellte, Brecknockshire (No CISP entry)
  • Margam Mountain (Mynydd Margam), Glamorganshire (MARG1/1)

Up until a few days ago I had assumed that these must all have been accidentally mislabelled by the editors of the map, and that they were almost certainly without any Ogham inscription. However, on Monday I noticed on the page describing the forthcoming third volume of A Corpus of Early Medieval Inscribed Stones and Stone Sculpture in Wales the statement that "[d]iscoveries made in the course of fieldwork in 2007 include a previously unknown ogam inscription on a roman-letter inscribed stone from Llanfaelog". Upon enquiry, Professor Nancy Edwards was kind enough to provide me with the details of this discovery, and it transpires that the Ogham inscription is on the stone indicated as having an Ogham inscription on it in the index of memorial stones in the Map of Britain in the Dark Ages (cross-referenced to ECMW 10, the Mailisi stone). This stone and its Latin inscription, M‍AILISI, was first noticed by John Skinner in 1802 (Ten Days Tour through the island of Anglesea page 42 and 48; in Archaeologia Cambrensis Supplement, July 1908), when it was already in use as a lintel in a barn, and it remained built into the barn wall until the barn was demolished in 2001. Skinner only notes a Latin inscription, and I can find no mention of an Ogham inscription on this stone in any source other than the Ordnance Survey map. Moreover, according to Professor Edwards the Ogham inscription was not visible until the stone had been removed from the structure of the barn in 2001, so where, I wonder, did the Ordnance Survey get the idea that the stone did have an Ogham inscription on it ? Perhaps it is just a lucky coincidence that they accidentally mismarked the Mailisi stone as an Ogham stone, but given that there are nearly fifty memorial stones in North Wales, and only two of them (other than this stone) definitely have an Ogham inscription, it would be remarkably serendipitous to make such a mistake on the one stone that really does have an Ogham inscription amongst all the others that do not. I wonder if perhaps at one time the Ogham inscription was visible, and had been noticed by an Ordnance Survey surveyor, but later became obscured when the window it was a lintel to was perhaps rebuilt, and so the Ogham inscription was not noticed by Nash-Williams. Whatever the true explanation may be, it has made me think again about the other four stones in Wales and Cornwall that only the Ordnance Survey map indicates as having an Ogham inscription on them. Does the Ordnance Survey perhaps know something about these stones that Macalister, Nash-Williams and everyone else did not know ?

A further issue with the Ordnance Survey map (and also with the Wikipedia map) is that some of the stones indicated as having an Ogham inscription may not really have an Ogham inscription on them at all. Because of the nature of the Ogham script and the way that it is carved along edge of stones, Ogham inscriptions tend to be less durable than Latin inscriptions. Over the centuries the edges of a stone can become abraded, and the strokes of Ogham letters (especially the vowel letters) can disappear. The result of this is that most Ogham inscriptions are incomplete, and need to be reconstructed to a certain extent. This also means that ogamologists need to be on the look out for odd incisions and marks on the edges of stones that might be the vestiges of an Ogham inscription that has been all but worn away. Unfortunately, this also means that natural features of the rock or marks made by later processes (such as sharpening farm implements or weapons) may be mistaken for the remnant strokes of Ogham letters. It is also possible that Ogham inscriptions were deliberately obliterated at a later date, usually when a cross was added to the stone, either because they were thought to be pagan marks or because they were aesthetically displeasing.

R. A. S. Macalister, author of the monumental Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum [CIIC], had a particularly fanciful imagination when it came to recognising remnants of Ogham inscriptions. Macalister identifies LARTH/1 (CIIC 348), LDYSL/1 (CIIC 349), SISHM/1 (CIIC 376), HENLL/1 (CIIC 364), PTREF/1 (CIIC 401) and TIRPH/1 (CIIC 404) in Wales, and SENDL/1 (CIIC 478) and SCLEM/1 (CIIC 473) in Cornwall, as having traces of an Ogham inscription on them. In a couple of cases there is no visible trace of any Ogham letters left on the stone, but Macalister speculates that a perceived pattern of flaking along the edges indicate that an original Ogham inscription has been deliberately obliterated. Macalister is the only authority to see the remnants of an Ogham inscription on most of these eight stones, and for some of these stones other authorities have explicitly discounted the possibility of an Ogham inscription. Thus, it is doubtful that these stones did originally have an Ogham inscription on them, but because they have been identified as having one by Macalister, they are still marked as such on the Ordnance Survey and Wikipedia maps. I have attempted to distinguish between certain Ogham inscriptions (including stones such as DFYNG/1 and MTHRY/1 that have vestiges of an Ogham inscription that are recognised by more than one authority) and doubtful Ogham inscriptions on my map, by marking certain Ogham stones with a red tag (35 stones), and marking doubtful and unconfirmed Ogham stones with a yellow tag (11 stones).

The Welsh Ogham stones are all dated to the 5th and 6th centuries, and as is the case with the Ogham stones of Cornwall and Devon, most of them have a dual inscription, in Latin (script and language) on the face of the stone, and and in Ogham/Irish on the edge of the stone. Of the 35 definite Ogham stones in Wales, only five do not have a corresponding latin inscription (BRAW1/1, BRIDL/1, LFRN2/1, LOUGH/1, YFLL2/1). In all cases the inscription records the name of a person, and optionally the name of the person's father or some other familial relationship. In almost all cases the commemorated person is male, but in one case the Ogham inscription refers to the commemorated person as the daughter of someone (EGLWC/1).

Seven of the Latin inscriptions on biscript stones incorporate the hic iacit "here lies" formula, and a little over half of the definite Ogham stones are sited in churchyards or in churches, so it seems probable that most of the stones were memorial stones or grave markers (although none have been archaeologically associated with a grave). Two stones from Brawdy, one Ogham only (BRAW1/1) and one Ogham and Latin (BRAW3/1), were found next to an Iron Age hill fort (they were being used as a footbridge and as a gatepost, so they may well have been moved from an original location inside the hill fort). It has been suggested that the hill fort may have been reused as burial site, as was the case with some other hill forts in south-west Wales during the early medieval period, which would explain the presence of two Ogham stones in the same location (see Nancy Edwards, Early-Medieval Inscribed Stones and Stone Sculpture in Wales: Context and Function page 22). Another stone (CLOCG/1) originally stood on the summit of a burial mound called Bryn-y-Beddau "Hill of the Graves", in the close viscinity of a number of stone circles. Two stones originally stood close to Roman roads : the memorial to Icorix (BRYNK/1) was 200 m. from the road to Caernarfon and 300 m. from a minor Roman fort; and the memorial to Voteporix the Protector (CDWYR/1) was found at the edge of a churchyard about 200 m. south of a Roman road. The siting of these two memorial stones may reflect a continuation of the Roman custom of roadside burial, or may simply thave been intended to let the memorial be seen by people travelling along the road. Although most stones were probably memorials to the dead, there are also a few stones that are sited on open moorland (YFLL2/1) or in mountainous countryside (PONTS/1) that are nowhere near ecclesiastical or burial sites, and so may have been used as markers of land ownership, as was probably the original purpose of Ogham stones in Ireland.

The names engraved in the Ogham inscriptions on the Welsh stones are overwhelmingly Goidelic, with only a few names that are probably Brythonic, some possibly indicative of intermarriage between Irish settlers and the native British inhabitants :

  • TRENACCATLO "Of Trenaccatlo" [corresponding to Trenacatvs in the associated Latin inscription] (RHDDL/1)
  • INIGENA CUNIGNI AVITTORIGES "Of the daughter of Cunignos, Avittoriga" [the daughter's name is either Goidelic or Brythonic, but the father's name is Brythonic; this stone is perhaps a memorial to his British wife set up by an Irish settler] (EGLWC/1)
  • MAGLICUNAS MAQI CLUTARI "Of Maglicunas, son of Clutarias" [both names are Brythonic, and Thomas 1994 identifies the father with Clotri, one of the kings of Dyfed] (NEVRN/1)
  • SAGRAGNI MAQI CUNATAMI "Of Sagragnus, son of Cunatamus" [the son's name is Goidelic, but the father's name is Brythonic] (SDOGM/1)

In comparison with Cornwall and Devon, where three of the six definite Ogham inscriptions that we can read commemorate people with Latin names (Ingenuus, Iustus and Latinus), only four out of the thirty-five definite Ogham inscriptions in Wales commemorate someone with a Latin name. This difference is probably due to the relatively small number of Irish settlers in Dumnonia becoming culturally assimilated within the Romano-British population; whereas the Irish settlers in Wales belonged to large Irish communities, and so there was no pressure on them to adopt Latin names in favour of Irish names.

  • ETTERNI MAQI VICTOR "Of Etternus, son of Victor" [both names are Latin] (CLYDI/1)
  • TURPILLI MAQI TRILLUNI "Of Turpillius, son of Trillunus" [both names are Latin] (CRCKH/1)
  • POPIAS ROLION MAQI LLENA "Of Popia, ... son of Llena" [Popia or Popias is probably a Celticized version of the name Pvmpeivs given in the associated Latin inscription] (KENFG/1)
  • VITALIANI "Of Vitalianus" (NEVRN/2)

The CRCKH/1 and KENFG/1 inscriptions both illustrate the use of the rare Ogham letter Ifin or Iphin (earlier Pin, from Latin pinus "pine" or spina "thorn" ?) (in manuscript texts written as two overlapping diagonal crosses, but in monumental inscriptions written as a single diagonal cross) that is used to represent /p/ in Latin, Brythonic or Pictish names. As Primitive Irish did not have a /p/ sound there was originally no Ogham letter for /p/, and so the cross-shaped letter was added to represent this foreign sound. In later medieval Irish tradition this letter was repurposed as the diphthong /io/, and a new letter Peith introduced to represent /p/ in its place. The only other definite occurence of this letter on an Ogham stone inscription is in County Kerry, Ireland (COOLE/1), where it is used to write the name Erpenn, which Macalister suggests is a hybrid of the Pictish name Erp and the Irish diminuitive -én.

One other interesting feature of the Ogham transcription of non-Irish names is exhibited by the St Dogwell's stone (SDOGW/1), where the name written in the Latin script as HOGTIVIS is written in the Ogham script as OGTEN[AS]. The language and derivation of the name Hogtivis is obscure, but it cannot be Goidelic. In writing the name Hogtivis in Ogham letters, the initial H has been dropped, which confirms that the Ogham letter uath , which in later medieval Irish tradition is used to represent the Latin letter H, but which does not occur in Ogham inscriptions on memorial stones, was not used to represent the /h/ sound at this time. Exactly what the original phonetic value of this letter was is unknown ([y] has been suggested), but it had become obsolete by the time that Primitive Irish came to be inscribed on memorial stones in the 4th to 6th centuries.



[The Ogham stones of Wales are grouped in tables according to the historic county in which they are sited.]


Anglesey (Sir Fôn)

check mark Llanfaelog Stone (LFAEL/1)

SitePenseiri Farm, Trecastell, Llanfaelog, Anglesey.
NGRSH 3346 7066
Current LocationIn an outbuilding north of the farmhouse (the barn having been demolished in 2001).
HistoryFound in 1802 in a field, then used as the lintel for a window in a nearby barn.
DescriptionRectangular slab with vertical Latin inscription on one face, and an Ogham inscription along one edge.
DimensionsUnknown.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
400–599 (Edwards 2010)
NotesThis stone is marked as an Ogham stone on the Ordnance Survey Map of Britain in the Dark Ages, but no Ogham inscription is noted in the CISP database or appears to have been published elsewhere. When the stone was examined by Professor Nancy Edwards in 2007 she noticed the remnants of a previously unrecorded Ogham inscription on the stone (my thanks to Professor Edwards for kindly providing me with details of the stone and its inscriptions in advance of its publication in the forthcoming third volume of A Corpus of Early Medieval Inscribed Stones and Stone Sculpture in Wales covering North Wales).
References CISP LFAEL/1
Nash-Williams 1950 10

Nash-Williams 1950 #10


Latin Inscription
Transcription{MA}ILIS
ReadingMAILISI
TranslationOf Mailisus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚋᚐᚔᚂᚔᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top ?)
TranscriptionM[--]S[--]
ReadingM[AILI]S[I]
TranslationOf Mailisus


Brecknockshire (Sir Frycheiniog)

check mark Aberhydfer Stone (ABHYD/1)

SiteAberhydfer, Trecastle, Powys.
NGRSN 8590 2780
Current LocationInside St David's Church, Llywel.
HistoryFound in 1954 by Canon Jones-Davies in a wall/hedge blocking an old trackway by the River Usk.
DescriptionSandstone pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions1.82 × 0.33 × 0.22 m.
Date
NotesThe Ogham inscription cuts across the Latin inscription where the stone has been chamfered, indicating that the Ogham inscription postdates the Latin inscription.
References CISP ABHYD/1

Latin Inscription
Transcription[--]CIVS | [--]VS: | [--]AV[R] | [-][A]NVS[--]
Reading[LU]CIVS [FILI]VS [T]AVR[I]ANVS
TranslationLucius, son of Taurianus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚈᚐᚏᚔᚑᚏᚑ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionTARI[--]OR[--]
ReadingTARI[C]OR[O]
TranslationOf Taricoris (or Taricorus)


check mark Crickhowell Stone (CRCKH/1)

SiteTy-yn-y-wlad Farm, Crickhowell, Powys.
NGRSO 2250 1930
Current LocationBrecknock Museum & Art Gallery, Brecon [Cast No. 06.482].
HistoryFound in 1774 by the side of a field.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in three lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions1.98 × 0.53 × 0.18 m.
Date500–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
Notes
References CISP CRCKH/1
Macalister 1945 #327
Nash-Williams 1950 43
Ferguson 1887 189
Brash 1869 153

Macalister 1945 #327


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionCIT | TVRPILLIICIA | PVVERITRILVNIDVNOCA | TI
ReadingTVRPILLI <H>IC IACIT PVVERI TRILVNI DVNOCATI
TranslationOf Turpillius. here lies the son of Trilunus Dunocatus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚈᚒᚏᚘᚔᚂᚂᚔᚋᚐᚊᚔᚈᚏᚔᚂᚂᚒᚅ (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionTURPIL[--]LUN[U!]
ReadingTURPIL[LI] [MAQI] [TRIL]LUNI
TranslationOf Turpillius, son of Trillunus
NotesMacalister reads as TURPILI MOSAC TRALLONI "Of Turpilus, boy (=attendant) of Trallonus".


question mark Defynnog Stone (DFYNG/1)

SiteSt Cynog's Church, Defynnog, Maescar, Powys.
NGRSN 9250 2790
Current LocationIn Situ.
HistoryDiscovered in 1853, at which time it was built into the external face of the church tower.
DescriptionSandstone pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, an uncertain Ogham inscription along the right edge, and an engraved cross at one end.
Dimensions1.68 × 0.25 × 0.15 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
NotesThe reading of the Ogham inscription is uncertain, as only a few isolated strokes of the original inscription remain. "Ogham, almost all of which was trimmed away by the masons. Only the tips of three letters lying upon the H-surface remain" (Macalister 1945 p.318). "Possible vestiges of Ogams appear on the r. angle of the face" (Nash-Williams 1950 p.69). The cross was probably added later, changing the original orientation of the stone.
References CISP DFYNG/1
Macalister 1945 #328
Nash-Williams 1950 44

Macalister 1945 #328


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionRVGNIATIO | [--]LIVENDONI
ReadingRUGNIATIO FILI VENDONI
TranslationOf Rugniatis, son of Vendonius

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚏᚒᚌᚅᚔᚐᚔᚐᚋᚐᚔᚃᚓᚅᚑᚅᚔ (right edge, bottom-to-top)
Transcription[--]T[--]Q[--]D[--]
Reading[RUGNIA]T[IA MA]Q[I VEN]D[ONI]
TranslationOf Rugniatis, son of Vendonius


check mark Trecastle Stone (TCSTL/1)

SitePentre Poeth Farm, Capel Llanilid, Trecastle, Powys.
NGRSN 8700 2900
Current LocationBritish Museum (G41) [1878,1102.1].
HistoryFound in 1878 in rough farmland.
DescriptionSandstone pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the right edge.
DimensionsUnknown.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
NotesThe stone is richly decorated on the reverse (click on the image to see both sides of the stone), but these decorations were probably added later, and are upsidedown with respect to the original orientation of the stone.
References CISP TCSTL/1
Macalister 1945 #341
Nash-Williams 1950 71
Ferguson 1887 205

Photo © Trustees of the British Museum

Macalister 1945 #341


Latin Inscription
Transcription{MA}CCVTRENI+SALICIDVNI
ReadingMACCVTRENI + SALICIDVNI
TranslationOf Maccutrenus Salicidunus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚋᚐᚊᚒᚈᚏᚓᚅᚔᚄᚐᚂᚔᚉᚔᚇᚒᚅᚔ  (right edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionMAQUTRENISALICIDUNI
ReadingMAQUTRENI SALICIDUNI
TranslationOf Maquutrenus Salicidunus
NotesThis is the reading of Nash-Williams 1950. Macalister 1945 reads MAQITRENI instead of MAQUTRENI.


check mark Crai Stone (CRAI/1)

SitePentre Goch Garreg, Crai, Brecknock, Powys.
NGRSN 8770 2350
Current LocationLost.
HistoryFirst recorded in 1698 by Edward Lhuyd.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions3.20 × 0.30 × 0.15 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
NotesThis stone is only known from a 1698 drawing by Edward Lhuyd, who was unaware at the time that the marks along the edge of the stone were Ogham letters (it was not until 1702–1707 that Lhuyd recognised the marks on the edge of EMLGE/1 as an alphabetic inscription, but even then he did not realise that they were Ogham ["Several Observations Relating to the Antiquities and Natural History of Ireland"; in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London vol.27 (1710) pp.503–506]). The Ogham inscription as drawn by Lhuyd cannot be meaningfully interpretted.
References CISP CRAI/1
Macalister 1945 #329
Nash-Williams 1950 42

Nash-Williams 1950 #42


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionCAN{NT}IANIET | P{AT}ERILLIVS{MA}CCV | TRENIHICIA | CIT
ReadingCANNTIANI ET PATER ILLIVS MACCVTRENI HIC IACIT
TranslationOf Cantianus and his father Maccutrenus, he lies here

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚁᚋ       ᚅ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionB[M][--]S[--]N[--]N[--]N
Reading
Translation


cross mark Llanfihangel-Cwmdu Stone

SiteLlanfihangel-Cwmdu, Powys.
NGRSO 1510 2190
Current LocationIn situ ?
History
DescriptionPillar stone.
DimensionsUnknown.
Date
NotesMarked as an Ogham stone on the Ordnance Survey Map of Britain in the Dark Ages, but there appears to be no entry for this stone in the CISP database.
References


check mark Trallong Stone (TRLLW/1)

SiteSt David's Church, Trallwng (Trallong), Brecknock, Powys.
NGRSN 9660 2950
Current LocationInside the new St David's Church, Trallong.
HistoryDiscovered in 1856, at which time it was being used as the lintel for a window in the old church.
DescriptionSandstone pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and Ogham inscription along the left edge, and an engraved cross at one end.
Dimensions1.75 × 0.36 × 0.13 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
500–550 (Jackson 1953)
NotesThe cross was added later, changing the original orientation of the stone.
References CISP TRLLW/1
Macalister 1945 #342
Nash-Williams 1950 70
Ferguson 1887 199
Brash 1869 161

Macalister 1945 #342


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionCVNOCENNIFILIVS | CVNOGENIHICIACIT
ReadingCVNOCENNI FILIVS CVNOGENI HIC IACIT
TranslationOf Cunocennius, son of Cunogenus, he lies here

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚉᚒᚅᚐᚉᚓᚅᚅᚔᚃᚔᚔᚂᚃᚃᚓᚈᚑ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionCUNACENNIFIILFFETO
ReadingCUNACENNIVI ILVVETO
TranslationOf Cunacennivus Ilvveto(s)
NotesThe latter part of the inscription is problematic, and several different interpretations have been offered.


check mark Pontsticill Stone (PONTS/1)

SiteYstrad mountain, Pontsticill, Merthyr Tydfil.
NGRSO 0730 1310
Current LocationIn Cwm Criban valley below Ystrad mountain (rediscovered by Webley in 1957).
HistoryDiscovered in 1694 on Ystrad mountain (according to Edward Lhuyd).
DescriptionPillar stone with a faint Latin inscription on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions1.65 × 0.35 × 0.30 m.
Date400–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
Notes
References CISP PONTS/1
Macalister 1945 #336
Nash-Williams 1950 67A

Latin Inscription
Transcription[--] | [--]MAQI[--]
Reading[--] MAQI [--]
Translation..., son of ...

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚋᚇᚐ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionM[--]Q[--]D[--]C[--]DA
ReadingM[A]Q[I]D[E]C[E]DA
TranslationMaqi-Deceda


check mark Ystradfellte Stone I (YFLL2/1)

SitePen-y-Mynydd, Ystradfellte, Caer Madoc, Powys.
NGRSN 9180 1570
Current LocationCyfarthfa Castle Musuem & Art Gallery, Merthyr Tydfil, Glamorgan.
HistoryDiscovered in 1789 on open moorland.
DescriptionPillar stone with an Ogham inscription along the left edge, and an engraved cross at one end.
Dimensions1.88 × 0.25 × 0.25 m.
Date400–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
Notes
References CISP YFLL2/1
Macalister 1945 #345
Nash-Williams 1950 74

Macalister 1945 #345


Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚌᚂᚒᚃᚑᚉᚐ (left edge, bottom-to-top)
Ogham Text ᚔ (right edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionGLUFOCA[--] | I[--]
ReadingGLUVOCA[--] I[--]
TranslationOf Gluvoca[..]


cross mark Ystradfellte Stone II

Local NameMaen Llia
SiteYstradfellte, Powys.
NGRSN 9240 1910
Current LocationIn situ (near the road from Ystradfellte to Heol Senni).
History
DescriptionPillar stone with no visible inscriptions or marks.
DimensionsUnknown.
Date
NotesThis stone is marked as an Ogham stone on the Ordnance Survey Map of Britain in the Dark Ages, but there appears to be no entry for this stone in the CISP database.
References


Caernarvonshire (Sir Gaernarfon)

check mark Brynkir Stone (BRYNK/1)

SiteLlystyngwyn Farm, Brynkir, Dolbenmaen, Gwynedd.
NGRSH 4820 4554
Current LocationFarmyard of Llystyngwyn Farm.
HistoryDiscovered in 1902 near a gap in a hedge, 200 m. from a Roman road.
DescriptionGranite slab with a horizontal Latin inscription in three lines, and an Ogham inscription along the right edge.
Dimensions1.02 × 1.09 × 0.36 m.
Date500–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
Notes
References CISP BRYNK/1
Macalister 1945 #380
Nash-Williams 1950 84

Macalister 1945 #380


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionICORIFILIVS | POTENTI | NI
ReadingICORI<X> FILIVS POTENTINI
TranslationIcorix, son of Potentinus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Textᚔᚉᚑᚏᚔᚌᚐᚄ (right edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionICORIGAS
ReadingICORIGAS
TranslationOf Icorix


cross mark Treflys Stone (TFLYS/1)

SiteSt Michael's Church, Treflys, Gwynedd.
NGRSH 5343 3784
Current LocationInside the church.
HistoryDiscovered in 1904 in the foundation of the western wall of the churchyard.
DescriptionSlate pillar stone with a chi-rho cross and Latin inscription on one face.
Dimensions1.33 × 0.36 × 0.20 m.
Date500–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
NotesNo Ogham inscription is now visible, but Macalister 1945 notes that the left hand edge has been chipped, "as though to destroy an Ogham".
References CISP TFLYS/1
Macalister 1945 #398
Nash-Williams 1950 106

Macalister 1945 #398


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionIACONVS{FI}{LIVS}MIN | IACIT
ReadingIACONVS FILIVS MINI IACIT
TranslationJaconus, son of Minus, lies [here]


Cardiganshire (Sir Aberteifi)

cross mark Llanarth Stone (LARTH/1)

SiteSt David's Church, Llanarth, Ceredigion.
NGRSN 4229 5772
Current LocationInside the church.
HistoryFound in 1808 in the churchyard.
DescriptionCross stone with a damaged Latin inscription running vertically down the shaft of the cross, and a doubtful Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions1.47 × 0.61 × 0.25 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
NotesThe Ogham inscription is doubtful, and only legible to Macalister. "Apparently the artist of the cross did not notice his predecessor's work till he had completed his task, and when he did so, cautiously chipped it away, taking care not to spoil his own handiwork. He was obliged to spare the final S, which lay upon the arm of the cross, to avoid spoiling the latter with an unsightly flake. The work of destruction has not been complete: his carefulness has forced him to leave tips of scores along the B-surface: an R, an N (possibly), and L and a G can thus be traced; indeed, the second score of the last letter can be followed almost throughout its length. Restoring the vowels by the interspaces, and supplying an inevitable initial T, we arrive at TRENALUGOS as the most probable restoration" (Macalister 1945 p.333). "On the edge of the left arm-end what appear to be ogam strokes cannot be earlier than the cross and are likely to be strokes made by sharpening tools or weapons" (Thomas 1994 p.417).
References CISP LARTH/1
Macalister 1945 #348
Nash-Williams 1950 110

Macalister 1945 #348


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionG[URHI][R^S]T
ReadingGURHI[R]T
TranslationGurhirt (or Girhirst)

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚈᚄ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
Transcription[--]R[--]N[--]L[--]G[--]S
Reading[T]R[E]N[A]L[U]G[O]S
TranslationTrenalugos
NotesThis is Macalister's restoration.


cross mark Llandysul Stone (LDYSL/1)

SiteSt Tysul's Church, Llandysul, Ceredigion.
NGRSN 4190 4060
Current LocationInside the church (set into the north wall of the vestry).
HistoryDiscovered in 1703 in the wall of the churchyard.
DescriptionBroken piece of pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in three lines on one face, and a doubtful Ogham inscription on the left edge.
Dimensions0.44 × 0.36 m.
Date500–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
525–575 (Jackson 1953)
NotesThe broken upper portion of a pillar stone. The Ogham inscription is doubtful, and has only been recognised by Macalister. "The surviving traces—mere distal tips of the scores—of the Ogham suggest a V and an R, probably relics of the name [VEL]V[O]R[IGES]" (Macalister 1945 p.335).
References CISP LDYSL/1
Macalister 1945 #349
Nash-Williams 1950 121

Macalister 1945 #349


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionVELVOR[--] | {FI}LIA | BROHO[--]
ReadingVELVOR[IA] FILIA BROHO[MAGLI]
TranslationVelvoria, daughter of Brohomaglos

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Textᚃᚓᚂᚔᚌᚓᚄ (left edge, bottom-to-top)
Transcription[--]F[--]R[--]
Reading[VEL]V[O]R[IGES]
TranslationVelvoriges


check mark Rhyddlan Stone (RHDDL/1)

SiteCrug y Wyl Farm, Rhyddlan, Llanwenog, Ceredigion.
NGRSN 4860 4241
Current LocationNational Museum of Wales, Cardiff. (A History of the World)
HistoryDiscovered in 1808 in the foundations of the ruins of Capel Wyl.
DescriptionRectangular pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in three lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left and top edges.
Dimensions1.78 × 0.36 × 0.20 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
Notes
References CISP RHDDL/1
Macalister 1945 #353
Nash-Williams 1950 127
Ferguson 1887 192
Brash 1869 160

Macalister 1945 #353


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionTRENACATVS | ICIACITFILIVS | MAGLAGNI
ReadingTRENACATVS <H>IC IACIT FILIVS MAGLAGNI
TranslationTrenacatus, here lies the son of Maglagnus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚈᚏᚓᚅᚐᚉᚉᚐᚈᚂᚑ  (left and top edges, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionTRENACCATLO
ReadingTRENACCATLO
TranslationOf Trenaccatlo


Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin)

check mark Castell Dwyran Stone (CDWYR/1)

SiteCastell Dwyran, Cilymaenllwyd, Carmarthenshire.
NGRSN 1440 1819
Current LocationCarmarthen Museum.
HistoryDiscovered in 1895 in the churchyard fence.
DescriptionPillar stone with an engraved cross and a horizontal Latin inscription in three lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left and top edge.
Dimensions2.11 × 0.61 × 0.30 m.
Date540–550 (Nash-Williams 1950)
550–550 (Jackson 1953)
533–566 (McManus 1991)
NotesVOTEPORIGIS/VOTECORIGAS has long been identified with Vortipor, a 6th-century king of Dyfed mentioned by Gildas, but recent scholarship tends to reject this identification on the basis that the lack of an R in the first syllable of the name in both the Ogham and Latin inscriptions cannot be reconciled with the spelling of the name given in historic sources.
References CISP CDWYR/1
Macalister 1945 #358
Nash-Williams 1950 138

Macalister 1945 #358


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionMEMORIA | VOTEPORIGIS | PROTICTORIS
ReadingMEMORIA VOTEPORIGIS PROTICTORIS
TranslationThe memorial of Voteporix the Protector

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚃᚑᚈᚓᚉᚑᚏᚔᚌᚐᚄ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionFOTECORIGAS
ReadingVOTECORIGAS
TranslationOf Votecorix


check mark Eglwyscummin Stone (EGLWC/1)

SiteSt Margaret's Church, Eglwyscummin, Carmarthenshire.
NGRSN 2310 1065
Current LocationInside the church.
HistoryDiscovered in 1889 in the churchyard at which time it was being used as a step on the south side of the church.
DescriptionSandstone pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription on the left and right edges. The top of the stone is broken off and missing.
Dimensions1.02 × 0.33 × 0.25 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
466–499 (Jackson 1953)
Notes
References CISP EGLWC/1
Macalister 1945 #362
Nash-Williams 1950 142

Macalister 1945 #362


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionAVITORIA | FILIACVNIGNI
ReadingAVITORIA FILIA CVNIGNI
TranslationAvitoria daughter of Cunignus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚔᚅᚔᚌᚓᚅᚐᚉᚒᚅᚔᚌᚅᚔ (left edge, bottom-to-top)
 ᚐᚃᚔᚈᚈᚑᚏᚔᚌᚓᚄ (right edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionINIGENA CUNIGNI | AFITTORIGES
ReadingINIGENA CUNIGNI AVITTORIGES
TranslationOf the daughter of Cunignos, Avittoriga


check mark Llandawke Stone (LDWKE/1)

SiteSt Odoceus' Church, Llandawke, Carmarthenshire.
NGRSN 2820 1120
Current LocationInside the church.
HistoryDiscovered in 1838 in the churchyard.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face and one line on the left side, and an Ogham inscription along the left and right edges.
Dimensions1.37 × 0.30 × 0.08 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
400–450 (Thomas 1994)
Notes
References CISP LDWKE/1
Macalister 1945 #368
Nash-Williams 1950 150
Ferguson 1887 198

Macalister 1945 #368


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionBARRIVEND | {FI}LIVSVENDVBARI | HICIACIT
ReadingBARRIVENDI FILIVS VENDVBARI HIC IACIT
TranslationOf Barrivendus, son of Vendubarus, he lies here

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚇᚒᚋᚓᚂᚓᚇᚑᚅᚐᚄ (right edge, bottom-to-top)
 ᚋᚐᚊᚔᚋᚒᚉᚑᚔ (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionDUMELEDONAS | MAQIM[--]
ReadingDUMELEDONAS MAQI M[UCOI] [--]
TranslationOf Dumeledo, son of the tribe of ...


check mark Llangeler Stone (LGELR/1)

SiteCapel Mair, Llangeler, Carmarthenshire.
NGRSN 4030 3800
Current LocationInside the chapel.
HistoryDiscoverd in 1828 in the chapel cemetery.
DescriptionGritstone pillarstone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the right and top edges.
Dimensions1.05 × 0.46 × 0.10 m.
Date466–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
475–525 (Thomas 1994)
Notes
References CISP LGELR/1
Macalister 1945 #372
Nash-Williams 1950 160

Macalister 1945 #372


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionDE[CAB]ARBALOM | FILIVS BROCAGN
ReadingDECABARBALOM FILIUS BROCAGNI
TranslationDecabarbalom son of Brocagnus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚇᚓᚉᚉᚐᚔ ᚁᚐᚏᚃᚐᚂᚁᚋᚐᚊᚔᚁᚏᚑᚉᚐᚌᚅᚔ  (right edge, bottom-to-top)
Transcription[--]I BARFALB[--][R]O[--][L!][U!]
Reading[DECCA]IBARVALB [MAQI B]RO[CAG]NI
TranslationDeccaibarvalb, son of Brocagnus
NotesThe inscription is extremely uncertain, and a number of different readings have been made. The reading above is based on Macalister 1945.


cross mark St Ishmael Stone (SISHM/1)

SiteAll Saints Church, Llansaint, St Ishmael's (Llan Ishmael), Carmarthenshire.
NGRSN 3846 0804
Current LocationIn Situ.
HistoryDiscovered in 1846, at which time it was built into the external wall of the church.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face. The edges of the stone have been flaked away.
Dimensions1.47 × 0.27 m.
Date
NotesThe Ogham inscription is very doubtful. According to Macalister the sides and tops of the stone have been flaked away in order destroy an original Ogham inscription, of which he sees the remnant strokes of a single letter.
References CISP SISHM/1
Macalister 1945 #376
Nash-Williams 1950 174

Macalister 1945 #376


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionVENNISETL | FILIVSERC:AGN
ReadingVENNISETLI FILIVS ERCAGNI
TranslationOf Vennisetl, son of Ercagnus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚃᚓᚅᚅᚔᚄᚓᚈᚂᚔᚋᚐᚊᚔᚓᚏᚉᚐᚅᚔ  (left-top-right edges, top-to-bottom, then bottom to-top)
Transcription[--]G[--]
Reading[VENNISETLI MAQI ERCA]G[NI]
TranslationOf Ercagni


check mark Llanwinio Stone (LWNIO/1)

SiteLlanwinio Church, Llanwinio, Carmarthenshire.
NGRSN 2610 2646
Current LocationCarmarthen Museum, Cast at National Museum of Wales [14.306/5], Cardiff.
HistoryDiscovered in 1846 whilst digging the foundations of the new church at Llanwinio Carn.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in three lines on one face, an Ogham inscription on the left and right edges, and an engraved cross at one end. The top of the stone is broken off and missing.
Dimensions1.19 × 0.38 × 0.29 m.
Date400–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
500–533 (Jackson 1953)
500–533 (McManus 1991)
NotesThe cross was probably added later, changing the original orientation of the stone. Macalister 1945 suggests that there would have been a third line of Ogham on the third edge of the stone, which is now broken off.
References CISP LWNIO/1
Macalister 1945 #378
Nash-Williams 1950 169
Ferguson 1887 201

Macalister 1945 #378


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionBI{VA}D | AVIBODIBE | VE
ReadingBIVADI AVI BODIBEVE
TranslationOf Bivadus, grandson of Bodibeva

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚁᚔᚃᚃᚔᚇᚑᚅᚐᚄ  (right edge, bottom-to-top)
 ᚐᚃᚃᚔᚁᚑᚇᚇᚔᚁᚓᚃᚃᚐᚄ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionBIFF[U!][--] | AFFIBODDIB[A!][--]
ReadingBIVV[IDONAS] AVVI BODDIB[EVVAS]
TranslationOf Bivvidu, grandson of Boddibevva


cross mark Henllan Amgoed Stone (HENLL/1)

SiteParciau House, Henllan Amgoed, Carmarthenshire.
NGRSN 1750 1970
Current LocationIn Situ (but moved to an adjacent field).
HistoryFound in 1697 in a field called Parc y Maen ("Field of the Stone").
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face.
Dimensions1.60 × 0.53 × 0.33 m.
Date
NotesThe Ogham inscription is doubtful. "At best, for the greater part of its length, it is recognizable only by the hollows which the groups of letter-scores have left on the two sides of the angle" (Macalister 1945 pp.348-349).
References CISP HENLL/1
Macalister 1945 #364
Nash-Williams 1950 144

Nash-Williams 1950 #144


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionQUENVENDAN | FILIBARCUN
ReadingQUENVENDANI FILI BARCUNI
TranslationOf Quenvendanus, son of Barcunus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚊᚒᚓᚅᚃᚓᚅᚇᚐᚅᚔᚋᚐᚊᚉᚒᚅᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
Transcription[--]NFENDANIM[--]B[--]R[--]
Reading[QUE]NVENDANI M[AQ] B[A]R[CUNI]
TranslationOf Quenvendanus, son of Barcunus


Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych)

check mark Clocaenog Stone (CLOCG/1)

SiteBryn-y-Beddau, Clocaenog, Denbighshire.
NGRSJ 0520 5320
Current LocationNational Museum of Wales [36.473], Cardiff.
HistoryFound in 1693 on the summit of a burial mound called Bryn-y-Beddau ("Hill of the Graves").
DescriptionSandstone pillar stone with a horizontal Latin inscription on one face, and an Ogham inscription on the left and right edges.
Dimensions2.00 × 0.64 × 0.58 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
466–499 (Jackson 1953)
Notes
References CISP CLOCG/1
Macalister 1945 #399
Nash-Williams 1950 176
Ferguson 1887 195

Macalister 1945 #399


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionSIMILINI | TOVISACI
ReadingSIMILINI TOVISACI
TranslationOf Similinus the Prince

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Textᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
ᚈᚑᚃᚔᚄᚐᚉᚔ  (right edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionS[--]B[--]L[--]N[--] | [--]FISACI
ReadingS[I]B[I]L[I]N[I] [TO]VISACI
TranslationOf Sibilinus the Prince


cross mark Pentrefoelas Stone (PTREF/1)

SiteTy'n y bryn Farm, Dol tre beddau, Pentrefoelas, Conwy.
NGRSJ 0760 3000
Current LocationPentrefoelas Hall.
HistoryDiscovered in 1820, lining a grave in a cemetery of forty graves under Ty'n y bryn Farm.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in three lines on one face.
Dimensions1.52 × 0.52 × 0.08 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
500–549 (Jackson 1953)
NotesThe Ogham inscription is doubtful, and has only been recognised by Macalister.
References CISP PTREF/1
Macalister 1945 #401
Nash-Williams 1950 183

Macalister 1945 #401


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionBROHO{MA}GLI | IATTIICIACIT | ETVXOREIVSC{AV}{NE}
ReadingBROHOMAGLI IATTI <H>IC IACIT ET UXOR EIUS CAUNE
TranslationOf Brohomaglus Iattus; he lies here, and his wife Caune

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚁᚑᚆᚑᚋᚐᚌᚂᚔ  (right edge, top-to-bottom)
Transcription[--]R[--]
Reading[B]R[OHOMAGLI]
TranslationOf Brohomaglus


Glamorganshire (Sir Forgannwg)

cross mark Tirphil Stone (TIRPH/1)

SiteCapel Brithdir, Bargoed, Gelli-gaer, Tirphil, Caerphilly.
NGRSO 1375 0262
Current LocationNational Museum of Wales [23.283], Cardiff.
HistoryFound in 1861 in a field next to Capel Brithdir.
DescriptionSandstone pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in four lines on one face.
Dimensions2.25 × 1.00 × 0.22 m.
Date
NotesThe Ogham inscription is doubtful, and has only been recognised by Macalister. "There are no oghamic marks whatever upon the edges" (Jones 1862 p.220). "The suggestion that there are traces of Ogam cannot be maintained" (Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales 1976 p.36).
References CISP TIRPH/1
Macalister 1945 #404
Nash-Williams 1950 270

Macalister 1945 #404


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionTEGERNA | CUSFILI | USMARTI | HICIACIT
ReadingTEGERNACUS FILIUS MARTI HIC IACIT
TranslationTegernacus, son of Martius, lies here

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚈᚓᚌᚓ (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionTEGE[--]
ReadingTEGE[--]
TranslationTege...


check mark Kenfig Stone (KENFG/1)

SiteKenfig, Bridgend.
NGRSS 8000 8400
Current LocationMargam Stones Museum [no. 2], Port Talbot.
HistoryDiscovered in 1578 by the side of the road between Eglwys Nynnydd and Pyle Station.
DescriptionSandstone pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription on the left and right edges.
Dimensions1.35 × 0.52 × 0.35 m.
Date500–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
Notes
References CISP KENFG/1
Macalister 1945 #409
Nash-Williams 1950 198
Ferguson 1887 204
Brash 1869 151

Macalister 1945 #409


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionP{VM}PEIVS | CARANTORIVS
ReadingPVMPEIVS CARANTORIVS
TranslationPumpeius Carantorius

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚘᚑᚘᚔᚐᚄ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
Ogham Text ᚏᚑᚂᚔᚑᚅᚋᚐᚊᚔᚂᚂᚅᚐ  (right edge, top-to-bottom)
TranscriptionPOPIA[--] | ROL[--]NM[--]ILL[--]NA
ReadingPOPIA[S] ROL[IO]N M[AQ]I LL[E]NA
TranslationOf Popia, ... son of Llena
NotesMacalister reads two separate inscriptions, PAMPES (corresponding to the Latin PVMPEIVS) and ROL[ACU]N M[A]Q ILLUNA.


cross mark Margam Stone (MARG1/1)

SiteMargam Mountain (Mynydd Margam), Margam, Neath Port Talbot.
NGRSS 8306 8878
Current LocationMargam Stones Museum [no. 3], Port Talbot.
HistoryDiscovered in 1695 on Margam Mountain, near a pool called Llyn-dwr-mawr.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in four lines on one face, and an engraved Maltese cross on the top.
Dimensions1.01 × 0.33 × 0.22 m.
Date500–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
NotesMarked as an Ogham stone on the Ordnance Survey Map of Britain in the Dark Ages, but no Ogham inscription is noted in the CISP database.
References CISP MARG1/1
Macalister 1945 #408
Nash-Williams 1950 229

Macalister 1945 #408


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionBODVOCHICI{A}CIT | {FI}{LI}VSC{A}TOTIGIRNI | PRONEPVSETERN{A}L/I | VEDOM{A}V
ReadingBODVOCI HIC IACIT FILIVS CATOTIGIRNI PRONEPVS ETERNALI VEDOMAVI
TranslationOf Bodvoc, here lies the son of Catotigirnus and great-grandson of Eternalis Vedomavus


check mark Loughor Stone (LOUGH/1)

SiteLoughor Rectory, Loughor, Swansea.
NGRSS 5753 9816
Current LocationSwansea Museum [SWASM:SM1952.11].
HistoryDiscovered in 1857 in Loughor Rectory garden, at which time it was being used as a step leading up to the house.
DescriptionSandstone Roman altar stone with a fragmentary Ogham inscription along one edge of the base.
Dimensions1.10 × 0.53 × 0.53 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
NotesRoman altar.
References CISP LOUGH/1
Macalister 1945 #405
Nash-Williams 1950 228
Ferguson 1887 186
Brash 1869 167

Macalister 1945 #405


Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text  ᚂᚔᚉᚐ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
Transcription[--]L[--][L^V]ICA
Reading[--]L[--][L^V]ICA
TranslationOf ...lica (or Of ...vica)
NotesMacalister reads the name as G[R]AVICA.


Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro)

check mark Brawdy Stone I (BRAW1/1)

SiteCas Wilia (Castell Villia) Farm, Brawdy, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSM 8820 2760
Current LocationInside the Church porch, Brawdy church.
HistoryDiscovered in 1883, at which time it was being used as a gatepost.
DescriptionIrregularly shaped pillar stone with an Ogham inscription along one edge.
Dimensions2.69 × 0.84 × 0.56 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
Notes
References CISP BRAW1/1
Macalister 1945 #423
Nash-Williams 1950 296

Macalister 1945 #423


Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚋᚊᚐᚌᚈᚓ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionM[--]Q[--]QAGTE
ReadingM[A]Q[I] QAGTE
Translation[...] the son of Quagte


check mark Brawdy Stone II (BRAW3/1)

SiteCas Wilia (Castell Villia) Farm, Brawdy, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSM 8840 2750
Current LocationInside the Church porch, St David's Church, Brawdy.
HistoryDiscovered in 1680, at which time it was being used as a footbridge over a stream.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in three lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions2.06 × 0.53 × 0.38 m.
Date500–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
500–599 (Thomas 1994)
Notes
References CISP BRAW3/1
Macalister 1945 #422
Nash-Williams 1950 298

Macalister 1945 #422


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionVENDAGNI | FILI V[--] | [--]NI
ReadingVENDAGNI FILI V[--]NI
TranslationVendagnus, son of V[..]nus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚃᚓᚅᚇᚑᚌᚅᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionFENDOGNI
ReadingVENDOGNI
TranslationOf Vendognus


check mark Bridell Stone (BRIDL/1)

SiteSt David's Church, Bridell, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSN 1766 4206
Current LocationIn Situ.
HistoryDiscovered in 1860 in the churchyard.
DescriptionPointed pillar stone with an engraved cross on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions2.29 × 0.66 × 0.17 m.
Date400–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
420–430 (Thomas 1994)
Notes
References CISP BRIDL/1
Macalister 1945 #426
Nash-Williams 1950 300
Ferguson 1887 203

Macalister 1945 #426


Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚅᚓᚈᚈᚐᚄᚐᚌᚏᚔᚋᚐᚊᚔᚋᚒᚉᚑᚔᚁᚏᚔᚓᚉᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionNETTASAGRIMAQIMUCOIBRIECI
ReadingNETTASAGRI MAQI MUCOI BRIECI
TranslationOf Nettasagrus, son of the tribe of Brecos
NotesThis is the reading given by Thomas 1994. Macalister 1945 and Nash-Williams 1950 give slightly different readings, NETTASAGRI MAQI MUCOE BRIACI and NETTASAGRU MAQI MUCOI BRECI respectively.


check mark Caldey Island Stone (CALDY/1)

SiteCaldey Priory, Caldey Island (Ynys Byr), Penally, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSS 1400 9630
Current LocationInside the restored priory chapel, Caldey Island.
HistoryDiscovered in 1810 in the ruins of the old priory.
DescriptionSandstone pillar stone with a horizontal Latin inscription in eight lines on one face, an Ogham inscription on the left and right edges, and an engraved cross on each of the four faces.
Dimensions1.73 × 0.41 × 0.10 m.
Date400–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
Notes
References CISP CALDY/1
Macalister 1945 #427
Nash-Williams 1950 301A
Ferguson 1887 202

Macalister 1945 #427


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionE/TSINGNOCR | UCISINILLAM | FINGSIROGO | OMNIBUSAM | MULANTIBUS | IBIEXORENT | PROANIMÆ | CATUOCONI
ReadingET SIGNO CRUCIS IN ILLAM FINXI ROGO OMNIBUS AMBULANTIBUS IBI EXORENT PRO ANIMÆ CATUOCONI
TranslationAnd by the sign of the Cross (which) I have fashioned upon that (stone) I ask all who walk there that they pray for the soul of Catuoconus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚋᚐᚌᚂᚔᚐᚇᚒᚁᚏᚐᚉᚒᚅᚐᚄ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
 ᚋᚐᚊᚔ  ᚔᚅᚁ  (right edge, top-to-bottom)
TranscriptionMAGL[--]DUBR[--] | [--]INB
ReadingMAGL[IA] DUBR[ACUNAS] [MAQI] [--]INB
TranslationOf Maglia-Dubracunas, son of ...
NotesThis is the reading given by Nash-Williams 1950. Macalister reads the letters on the right edge as QI instead of INB.


check mark Cilgerran Stone (CILGN/1)

SiteSt Llawddog's Church, Cilgerran, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSN 1960 4305
Current LocationIn Situ.
HistoryDiscovered in 1855 in the churchyard, at the south side of the church.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the right edge.
Dimensions1.50 × 0.34 × 0.34 m.
Date500–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
600–633 (Jackson 1953)
600–633 (Thomas 1994)
Notes
References CISP CILGN/1
Macalister 1945 #428
Nash-Williams 1950 305
Ferguson 1887 194

Photograph by Plucas58, 16 June 2010

Macalister 1945 #428


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionTRENEGUSSIFILI | MACUTRENIHICIACIT
ReadingTRENEGUSSI FILI MACUTRENI HIC IACIT
TranslationOf Trenegussus, son of Macutrenus, he lies here

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚈᚏᚓᚅᚐᚌᚒᚄᚋᚐᚊᚔᚋᚐᚊᚔᚈᚏᚓᚅᚔ  (right edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionTRENAGUSIMAQIMAQITRENI
ReadingTRENAGUSI MAQI MAQITRENI
TranslationOf Trenagusus, son of Maquitrenus


check mark Clydau Stone I (CLYDI/1)

SiteSt Clydey's Church, Clydau (Clydaï), Pembrokeshire.
NGRSN 2500 3540
Current LocationInside the church.
HistoryDiscovered in 1860 in the north wall of the churchyard.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in one line on one face, and an Ogham inscriptuion along the left and right edges. The top of the stone has been trimmed away to make a base for a sundial, losing part of he Ogham inscription.
Dimensions1.79 × 0.33 × 0.25 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
500–533 (Jackson 1953)
Notes
References CISP CLYDI/1
Macalister 1945 #430
Nash-Williams 1950 306
Ferguson 1887 193

Macalister 1945 #430


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionETTERN{FIL}IVICTOR
ReadingETTERNI FILI VICTOR
TranslationOf Etternus, son of Victor

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚓᚈᚈᚓᚏᚅ (left edge, bottom-to-top)
 ᚋᚐᚊᚔᚃᚔᚉᚈᚑᚏ  (right edge, top-to-bottom)
TranscriptionETTERN[--] | [--]TOR
ReadingETTERN[I] [MAQI VIC]TOR
TranslationOf Etternus, son of Victor


check mark Clydau Stone II (CLYDI/3)

SiteSt Clydey's Church, Clydau (Clydaï), Pembrokeshire.
NGRSN 2500 3540
Current LocationInside the church.
HistoryDiscovered in 1698 in the churchyard.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, an Ogham inscription along the right edge, and an engraved cross at one end.
Dimensions1.47 × 0.41 × 0.13 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
500–566 (Jackson 1953)
NotesThe cross was added later, changing the original orientation of the stone.
References CISP CLYDI/3
Macalister 1945 #431
Nash-Williams 1950 308
Ferguson 1887 200

Macalister 1945 #431


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionDOB[-]TVCI | FILIVSEVOLENG[-]
ReadingDOB[I]TVCI FILIVS EVOLENG[I]
TranslationOf Dobitucus, son of Evolengus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚇᚈᚒᚉᚓᚐᚄ  (right edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionD[--]F[--]TUCEAS
ReadingD[O]V[A]TUCEAS
TranslationOf Dovatucis
NotesThis is the reading given by Nash-Williams 1950. Macalister 1945 reads DOVATACIS.


check mark Jordanston Stone (JRDNS/1)

SiteLlangwarren House, Jordanston, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSM 9290 3130
Current LocationBuilt into the external corner of a stable adjoining Llangwarren House.
HistoryDiscovered in 1896 on the Llangwarren farm, at which time it was being used as a gatepost.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions1.45 × 0.58 × 0.25 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
466–533 (Jackson 1953)
Notes
References CISP JRDNS/1
Macalister 1945 #432
Nash-Williams 1950 312

Macalister 1945 #432


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionTIGERNACI | DOBAGNI
ReadingTIGERNACI DOBAGNI
TranslationOf Tigernacus Dobagnus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚇᚑᚃᚐᚌᚅᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionDOFAGNI
ReadingDOVAGNI
TranslationOf Dovagnus


check mark Llandeilo Stone (LDEIL/1)

SiteSt Teilo's Church, Llandeilo (Llandilo), Maenclochog, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSN 0996 2691
Current LocationBy the gateway to the churchyard of the now ruined St Teilo's Church.
HistoryDiscovered in 1889 inside the church.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, an Ogham inscription along the left edge, and an engraved cross at one end.
Dimensions1.73 × 0.46 × 0.18 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
500–566 (Jackson 1953)
Notes
References CISP LDEIL/1
Macalister 1945 #433
Nash-Williams 1950 313

Macalister 1945 #433


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionANDAGELLIACIT | {FI}LIC{AV}ET
ReadingANDAGELLI IACIT FILI CAVETI
TranslationOf Andagellus, he lies (here), the son of Cavetus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚐᚅᚇᚐᚌᚓᚂᚂᚔᚋᚐᚉᚃᚉᚐᚃᚓᚈᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
Transcription[--]NDAGELLIMACFCAF[--]
Reading[A]NDAGELLI MACV CAV[ETI]
TranslationOf Andagellus, son of Cavetus
NotesThe unusual MACV for MAQI is read as macu by Thomas 1994.


check mark Llanfrynach Stone (LFRN2/1)

SiteTrehowel Farm, Mynydd Stambar, Llanfrynach, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSN 1740 2920
Current LocationIn the graveyard of Glandwr Baptist Chapel.
HistoryDiscovered in 1908 near Trehowel farmhouse, at which time it was being used as a gatepost.
DescriptionPillar stone with an engraved cross on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the right edge.
Dimensions1.45 × 0.32 × 0.35 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
Notes
References CISP LFRN2/1
Macalister 1945 #439
Nash-Williams 1950 319

Macalister 1945 #439


Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚓᚃᚄᚄᚅᚌᚐᚄᚓᚌᚅᚔ (right edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionEF[--]SS[--]NG[--]ASEG[--]
ReadingEF[E]SS[A]NG[I] ASEG[NI]
TranslationOf Efessangus Asegnus
NotesThis is the reading given in Nash-Williams 1950. Macalister 1945 reads the inscriptions as INg[E]NS[A]Ng[KT]ASEGNI (=INGEN SANGKTA SEGNI) "The sainted daughter of Segne".


question mark Mathry Stone (MTHRY/1)

SiteMathry Church, Mathry, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSM 8790 3200
Current LocationInside the church porch.
HistoryDiscovered in 1698 (in the churchyard?)
DescriptionPillar stone with a horizontal Latin inscription in four lines on one face.
Dimensions1.35 × 0.43 × 0.18 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1937)
466–533 (Jackson 1953)
NotesThe Ogham inscription is uncertain. "Mutilated traces of Ogams" (Nash-Williams 1937 p.386); "Illegible ogam" (Jackson 1953 p.140).
References CISP MTHRY/1
Macalister 1945 #442
Nash-Williams 1950 346

Nash-Williams 1950 #346


Latin Inscription
Transcription[MAC] | CVDICCL[I] | FILIVS | CATIC | VVS
ReadingMACCVDICCL[I] FILIVS CATICVVS
TranslationOf Maccudicclus, son [of] Caticuus


check mark Nevern Stone I (NEVRN/1)

SiteSt Brynach's Church, Nevern, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSN 0830 4000
Current LocationInside the church (built into the sill of the east window in the south wall).
HistoryDiscovered in 1904 inside the church, at which time it was being used as a lintel.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in one line on one side, and an Ogham inscription along the left and top edges.
Dimensions1.59 × 0.33 × 0.10 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
500–540 (Thomas 1994)
450–499 (Jackson 1953)
Notes
References CISP NEVRN/1
Macalister 1945 #446
Nash-Williams 1950 353

Macalister 1945 #446


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionMAGLOCVNFILICLVTOR
ReadingMAGLOCVN<I> FILI CLVTORI
TranslationOf Maglocunus, son of Clutorius

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚋᚐᚌᚂᚔᚉᚒᚅᚐᚄᚋᚐᚊᚔᚉᚂᚒᚈᚐᚏᚔ (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionMAGLICUNASMAQICLUTA[RI]
ReadingMAGLICUNAS MAQI CLUTA[RI]
TranslationOf Maglicunas, son of Clutarias


check mark Nevern Stone II (NEVRN/2)

SiteSt Brynach's Church, Nevern, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSN 0830 4000
Current LocationIn the churchyard (near the south wall of the nave).
HistoryDiscovered in 1695 in the churchyard on the north side of the church.
DescriptionPillar stone with a horizontal Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions1.93 × 0.61 × 0.51 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
400–499 (Jackson 1953)
466–533 (Thomas 1994)
Notes
References CISP NEVRN/2
Macalister 1945 #445
Nash-Williams 1950 354
Ferguson 1887 188

Macalister 1945 #445


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionVIT{AL}IANI | EMERETO
ReadingVITALIANI EMERETO
TranslationOf Vitalianus Emereto(s)

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚃᚔᚈᚐᚂᚔᚐᚅᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionFITALIANI
ReadingVITALIANI
TranslationOf Vitalianus


check mark St Dogmaels> Stone (SDOGM/1)

SiteSt Dogmaels Abbey, St Dogmaels, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSN 1640 4580
Current LocationInside St Thomas's Church.
HistoryDiscovered in 1694, at which time it was being used as footbridge over a brook in the grounds of the abbey.
DescriptionGritstone pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and an Ogham inscriptin along the left edge.
Dimensions2.13 × 0.48 × 0.20 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
466–533 (Jackson 1953)
Notes
References CISP SDOGM/1
Macalister 1945 #449
Nash-Williams 1950 384
Ferguson 1887 191
Brash 1869 155

Macalister 1945 #449


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionSAGRANIFILI | CVNOTAMI
ReadingSAGRANI FILI CVNOTAMI
TranslationOf Sagranus, son of Cunotamus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚄᚐᚌᚏᚐᚌᚅᚔᚋᚐᚊᚔᚉᚒᚅᚐᚈᚐᚋᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionSAGRAGNIMAQICUNATAMI
ReadingSAGRAGNI MAQI CUNATAMI
TranslationOf Sagragnus, son of Cunatamus


check mark St Dogwell's Stone (SDOGW/1)

SiteLittle Trefgarne (Trefgarn Fach) Farm, St Dogwell's, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSM 9640 2420
Current LocationIn the churchyard at St Dogwell's Church.
HistoryFound in 1875, at which tie it was being used as a gatepost on the road leading to the farm.
DescriptionIrregularly shaped pillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in two lines on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the right edge.
Dimensions1.85 × 0.53 × 0.23 m.
Date500–599 (Nash-Williams 1950)
500–533 (Jackson 1953)
Notes
References CISP SDOGW/1
Macalister 1945 #450
Nash-Williams 1950 390
Ferguson 1887 190

Macalister 1945 #450


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionHOGTIVISFILI | DEMETI
ReadingHOGTIVIS FILI DEMETI
TranslationOf Hogtivis, son of Demetus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚑᚌᚈᚓᚅᚐᚄ  (medial edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionOGTEN[--]
ReadingOGTEN[AS]
TranslationOf Ogtenas
NotesThis is the reading of Macalister 1945 and Thomas 1994. Rhys 1918 and Nash-Williams 1950 give the reading OGTEN[LO].


cross mark Spittal Stone (SPTTL/1)

SiteSt Mary's Church, Spittal, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSM 9758 2291
Current LocationIn the porch of St Mary's Church.
HistoryDiscovered in 1861 in the churchyard at the east side of the south porch.
DescriptionPillar stone with a vertical Latin inscription in three lines on one face.
Dimensions1.47 × 0.53 × 0.46 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
NotesInformation about the stone in situ states that originally there were both Latin and Ogham inscriptions on it, but the Ogham letters are no longer visible. However, neither the CISP database nor the Ordnance Survey Map of Britain in the Dark Ages indicate an Ogham inscription on this stone.
References CISP SPTTL/1
Macalister 1945 #454
Nash-Williams 1950 402

Macalister 1945 #454


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionE{VA}LIFILIDENCV | C{VN}IOVENDE | {MA}TEREIVS
ReadingEVALI FILI DENCVI CVNIOVENDE MATER EIVS
TranslationOf Evalus, son of Dencuus; Cuniovende, his mother [set it up(?)]


check mark Steynton Stone (STNTN/1)

SiteChurch of St Peter and St Cewydd, Steynton, Pembrokeshire.
NGRSM 9180 0780
Current LocationInside the church.
HistoryFound 1875 or earlier, and used as a gravestone in the churchyard (near the south-east end of the church) from 1875. Ogham inscription first recognised in 1880.
DescriptionPillar stone with an engraved cross on one face, and an Ogham inscription along the left edge.
Dimensions1.24 × 0.51 × 0.27 m.
Date400–533 (Nash-Williams 1950)
466–499 (Thomas 1994)
NotesUsed as a gravestone in Victorian times, with an epitaph to T. Harries (died 30 January 1875) who reputedly found the stone.
References CISP STNTN/1
Macalister 1945 #456
Nash-Williams 1950 404

Macalister 1945 #456


Latin Inscription
TranscriptionGE[NDILI]
ReadingGE[NDILI]
TranslationOf Gendilus

Ogham Inscription
Ogham Text ᚌᚓᚅᚇᚔᚂᚔ  (left edge, bottom-to-top)
TranscriptionGENDILI
ReadingGENDILI
TranslationOf Gendilius


References

  • CISP : Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. Department of History and the Institute of Archaeology, University College London.
  • NMR : National Monuments Records. English Heritage.
  • Brash 1869 : Richard Rolt Brash, "The Ogham Inscribed Stones of Wales"; in Archæologia Cambrensis‎ 3rd series vol.15 (1869) pages 148–167.
  • Ferguson 1887 : Samuel Ferguson, Ogham Inscriptions in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. Edinburgh, 1887.
  • Jackson 1953 : K. H. Jackson, Language and History in Early Britain. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1953.
  • Macalister 1945 : R. A. S. Macalister, Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum Vol. I. Dublin: Stationery Office, 1945.
  • Nash-Williams 1950 : V. E. Nash-Williams, The Early Christian Monuments of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1950.
  • Okasha 1993 : Elisabeth Okasha, Corpus of Early Christian Inscribed Stones of South-west Britain. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1993.
  • Thomas 1994 : Charles Thomas, And Shall These Mute Stones Speak? Post-Roman Inscriptions in Western Britain. Cardiff, 1994.


Further Reading



Key

The following conventions are used in the transcription of Latin, Runic and Ogham inscriptions :

  • [X] = letter X assumed but it is unclear or uncertain
  • [X^Y] = letter is uncertain but may be either X or Y
  • [X!] = Ogham letter is incomplete, and may be X or any letter from the same series as X with more strokes than X (e.g. [T!] is equivalent to [T^C^Q], and [A!] is equivalemt to [A^O^U^E^I])
  • [-] = single missing or obliterated letter
  • [--] = unknown number of missing or obliterated letters
  • {X} = unusual glyph form of letter X (description on mouseover)
  • {XY} = ligatured form of letters X and Y
  • (X) = letter X in the inscription is extraneous and should be omitted in the reading
  • <X> = letter X is missing in the insciption and should be added in the reading

Transcription of Ogham Letters
Letter Name Transcription Notes
BeithB
LuisL
FearnFRead as F or V.
SailS
NionN
UathH
DairDVariants include 'Rabbit-eared D'.
TinneT
CollC
CeirtQ
MuinM
GortG
nGéadalWRead as Ng or Gw.
StraifZRead as Z or St.
RuisRDouble R is occasionally written as a crosshatched ligature.
AilmAVariants include 'Hammerhead A' and 'S-shaped A'.
OnnO
ÚrU
EadhadhE
IodhadhI
EabhadhXRead as É or K.
ÓrÓ
UilleannÚ
IfinPWritten as a single cross under the stemline in epigraphic texts.
EamhanchollNot found in epigraphic texts.

Fonts

This page is best viewed if the set of 12 BabelStone Ogham fonts are installed on your system.

In order to see the Latin Epigraphic Letter Sideways I () it is recommended to install Doulos SIL version 5.000 or later.


Revised: 2014-11-09


1 comment:

Marc K Stengel said...

An excellent site, well designed, most helpful and much appreciated. For the references, may I also recommend Damian McManus' "A Guide to Ogam" [Publisher: An Sagart; ISBN-10: 1870684753; ISBN-13: 978-1870684750] for your consideration? The author is much cited, in fact, by Charles Thomas, already appearing in your list.