BabelStone

Wednesday, 1 January 2014

A Chronology of Khitan Inscriptions

There are three main questions that I ask when I look at Khitan monumental inscriptions: Who ?, When ? and Where ? Who is a very interesting question, which I would like to address in a future blog post, as the subjects of Khitan epitaphs are mostly mutually related members of the Khitan aristocracy. Where is a question that I have already attempted to answer here and here. This blog post attempts to answer the question "When ?" by gathering together in one place all the examples of dates from Khitan Large Script and Khitan Small Script monumental inscriptions that I can find, as well as dates mentioned in other primary Khitan sources such as on seals and in the recently-identified Khitan Large Script manuscript Nova N 176. A list of sources is provided at the bottom of this page ("KS" indicates a Khitan Small Script inscription; "KL" indicates a Khitan Large Script inscription).

At present this post includes 35 Khitan Large Script dates from 11 sources, and 74 Khitan Small Script dates from 15 sources. All the Khitan Small Script dates are Liao dynasty (907–1125) dates. 52 of the Khitan Small Script dates (from 13 sources) are Liao dyansty dates, and 22 Khitan Small Script dates (from 3 sources) are Jin dynasty (1115–1234) dates. The only source to include both Liao dynasty and Jin dynasty dates is the Epitaph for Xiao Zhonggong (KS23).


Khitan Large Script manuscript Nova N 176 leaf 9

V. P. Zaytsev, A Manuscript Codex Written in the Khitan Large Script from the Collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences (2011) page 135 fig. 4

"2nd month of the 14th year of the Chóngxī era" is on the second line from the left


Bronze mirror purportedly from Ulanqab, Inner Mongolia

[picture courtesy of Andrey Shakhman]

This mirror is possibly a modern forgery, so not used as a source for this post, but it is a good example of a Khitan Small Script date, which in this case is identical to the date given on the Epitaph for Xiao Zhonggong: "19th day of the 9th month (beginning on the day of the green dog) of the 2nd year (white horse cyclical year) of the Tiāndé era" (KS23 l.50).


Liao dynasty bronze official seal once in the possession of Imanishi Shunjū 今西春秋

Tōyōshi Kenkyū 東洋史研究 vol.3 no.4 (April 1938) plate 4

"A day in the 5th month of the 22nd year of the Tǒnghé era" is engraved on the back in Khitan Large Script.

 



A Daily Calendar for the Liao and Jin Dynasties

Khitan inscriptions date from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) and the following Jin dynasty (1115–1234), so in order to understand the chronology of Khitan inscriptions it is necessary to understand the calendars used during the Liao and Jin dynasties, as well as the calendar of the neighbouring Song dynasty (960–1279). So as a first step, in preparation for writing this blog post, I created a daily calendar covering the 373 years of the Song, Liao and Jin dynasties (907–1279). At 135,895 lines in length, the calendar is too long even for me to attempt to include in this post as an html table, but I have made it available for download as an Excel workbook or as tab-delimited text. At present the calendar covers the Liao, Northern Liao (1122–1123), Western Liao (1124–1218), Jin, and Song dynasties, but does not include calendrical information for any of the Five Dynasties or Ten Kingdoms (907–960). For each day from 960 to 1279, the calendar gives the corresponding date in the Julian calendar, the cyclical year and the cyclical day (common across all calendars), the calendrical date (i.e. era name and era year, calendrical month, and day of month) for each dynasty as appropriate, and certain astronomical information recorded in the dynastic histories (solar eclipses, lunar eclipses, and comets).

Calendrical dates are primarily derived from the DDBC Time Authority Database (時間規範資料庫), cross-checked against the calendrical data given in the dynastic histories. In a few places, where the date of a new month given in the DDBC Time Authority Database differs from the date given in one of the dynastic histories, I have corrected the date to follow the dynastic history.

The standard dynastic histories (History of the Song, History of the Liao, and History of the Jin) record dates by era year, calendrical month and cyclical day (e.g. 開泰九年七月庚戌 "gēngxū cyclical day in the 7th month of the 9th year of the Kaitai era"), but they do not normally give the ordinal day of the month (i.e. what day of the 7th month the gēngxū cyclical day is). As epitaphs usually refer to dates by the ordinal day of the month, it is necessary to be able to synchronize the sixty-day cyclical cycle with the lunar months in order to determine what ordinal day any given cyclical day is. It is also necessary to be able to synchronize calendrical dates between the Song, Liao and Jin calendars. Luckily the dynastic histories indicate if a given cyclical day is the day of a new moon, and as the first day of a month is the day of the new moon this information can be used to synchronize the sixty-day cyclical cycle with the lunar months.

Solar and lunar eclipses are also systematically recorded in the dynastic histories, and they can be used to synchronize the Song, Liao and Jin calendars with each other and with the Julian calendar. My daily calendar provides the NASA catalogue numbers of solar and lunar eclipses that are recorded in the dynastic histories.

The daily calendar of Liao and Jin dynasties underpins the annual Liao and Jin chronological tables given further down in this blog post.



Liao Calendar

遼、漢、周、宋,俱行夏時,各自為曆。國史閏朔,頗有異同。遼初用《乙未元曆》,本何承天《元嘉曆》法,後用《大明曆》,本祖沖之《甲子元曆》法。

— 《遼史》卷四十四 志第十四 曆象志下


The Liao, [Later] Han, [Later] Zhou and Song dynasties all used Xia time, but they all created their own calendars, so that in the dynastic histories there are considerable differences between the intercalary months and dates of the new moon. At the start of the Liao dynasty, the Yǐwèi Yuánlì, based on He Chengtian's Yuánjiā Lì, was used; but later the Dàmíng Lì, based on Zu Chongzhi's Jiǎzǐ Yuánlì, was used.

— History of the Liao vol. 44


The calendar used during the Liao dynasty (907–1125) seems to have been aligned with the calendars used by other dynasties and kingdoms during the Five Dynasties period (907–960) up until the second half of the Later Zhou dynasty (951–960). However, the Liao calendar was not identical to the calendar used during the Song dynasty (960–1279), and differences in calculating the date of the new moon and the dates of solar terms meant that Liao and Song months were not always synchronized. That is to say, although cyclical days are always the same across all calendars, the calendar day that corresponds to a given cyclical day may not always be the same in the Liao and Song calendars. For example, the 17th January 1002 in the Julian calendar corresponds to the cyclical day wùchén 戊辰 "earth dragon" in both the Song and Liao calendars, but in the Song calendar this is the 1st day of the intercalary 12th month, whereas in the Liao calendar the same day is the 2nd day of the 12th month. It is obviously very important to be aware of these calendrical differences when comparing Liao and Song historical records.

Months are either 29 days or 30 days in length, and in most cases Liao and Song months start on the same cyclical day and are the same length. However, occasionally a month in the Liao calendar starts one day earlier or one day later than the corresponding month in the Later Zhou or Song calendar, with the result that two consecutive months (and on one occasion three consecutive months) have different number of days in the Liao calendar compared with the Later Zhou calendar or Song calendar (e.g. the Song calendar has a month of 30 days followed by a month of 29 days, whereas the Liao calendar has a month of 29 days followed by a month of 30 days). This situation occurs three times during the Later Zhou, and thirty-five times during the Song dynasty, resulting in seventy-six Liao months with different lengths compared with the Later Zhou or Song calendar between 955 and 1121. This also results in thirty-nine Liao months starting on a different cyclical day (plus or minus one day) compared with the Later Zhou or Song calendar. These anomalous months are shown in the table below. Liao months with an offset of zero start on the same cyclical day as the corresponding Later Zhou or Song month, whereas Liao months with an offset of +1 or -1 start one day later or earlier respectively compared with the corresponding Later Zhou or Song month.


Julian
Year
Later Zhou or
Song Calendar
Liao Calendar
Era Year Month Days Era Year Month Days Offset
955 顯德二年
Xiǎndé 2
七月
7th
30 應曆五年
Yīnglì 5
七月
7th
29 0
955 顯德二年
Xiǎndé 2
八月
8th
29 應曆五年
Yīnglì 5
八月
8th
30 -1
958 顯德五年
Xiǎndé 5
八月
8th
30 應曆八年
Yīnglì 8
八月
8th
29 0
958 顯德五年
Xiǎndé 5
九月
9th
29 應曆八年
Yīnglì 8
九月
9th
30 -1
959 顯德六年
Xiǎndé 6
十一月
11th
30 應曆九年
Yīnglì 9
十一月
11th
29 0
959 顯德六年
Xiǎndé 6
十二月
12th
29 應曆九年
Yīnglì 9
十二月
12th
30 -1
964 乾德二年
Qiándé 2
三月
3rd
30 應曆十四年
Yīnglì 14
三月
3rd
29 0
964 乾德二年
Qiándé 2
四月
4th
29 應曆十四年
Yīnglì 14
四月
4th
30 -1
964 乾德二年
Qiándé 2
五月
5th
29 應曆十四年
Yīnglì 14
五月
5th
30 0
964 乾德二年
Qiándé 2
六月
6th
29 應曆十四年
Yīnglì 14
六月
6th
29 +1
964 乾德二年
Qiándé 2
七月
7th
30 應曆十四年
Yīnglì 14
七月
7th
29 +1
965 乾德三年
Qiándé 3
四月
4th
30 應曆十五年
Yīnglì 15
四月
4th
29 0
965 乾德三年
Qiándé 3
五月
5th
29 應曆十五年
Yīnglì 15
五月
5th
30 -1
973 開寶六年
Kāibǎo 6
三月
3rd
30 保寧五年
Bǎoníng 5
三月
3rd
29 0
973 開寶六年
Kāibǎo 6
四月
4th
29 保寧五年
Bǎoníng 5
四月
4th
30 -1
986 雍熙三年
Yōngxī 3
正月
1st
30 統和四年
Tǒnghé 4
正月
1st
29 0
986 雍熙三年
Yōngxī 3
二月
2nd
29 統和四年
Tǒnghé 4
二月
2nd
30 -1
986 雍熙三年
Yōngxī 3
六月
6th
30 統和四年
Tǒnghé 4
六月
6th
29 0
986 雍熙三年
Yōngxī 3
七月
7th
29 統和四年
Tǒnghé 4
七月
7th
30 -1
993 淳化四年
Chúnhuà 4
十二月
12th
30 統和十一年
Tǒnghé 11
十二月
12th
29 0
994 淳化五年
Chúnhuà 5
正月
1st
29 統和十二年
Tǒnghé 12
正月
1st
30 -1
1000 咸平三年
Xiánpíng 3
十二月
12th
30 統和十八年
Tǒnghé 18
十二月
12th
29 0
1001 咸平四年
Xiánpíng 4
正月
1st
29 統和十九年
Tǒnghé 19
正月
1st
30 -1
1001 咸平四年
Xiánpíng 4
九月
9th
30 統和十九年
Tǒnghé 19
九月
9th
29 0
1001 咸平四年
Xiánpíng 4
十月
10th
29 統和十九年
Tǒnghé 19
十月
10th
30 -1
1001 咸平四年
Xiánpíng 4
十二月
12th
30 統和十九年
Tǒnghé 19
閏十一月
+ 11th
29 0
1001 咸平四年
Xiánpíng 4
閏十二月
+ 12th
29 統和十九年
Tǒnghé 19
十二月
12th
30 -1
1012 大中祥符五年
Dàzhōng Xiángfú 5
二月
2nd
29 統和三十年
Tǒnghé 30
二月
2nd
30 0
1012 大中祥符五年
Dàzhōng Xiángfú 5
三月
3rd
30 統和三十年
Tǒnghé 30
三月
3rd
29 +1
1020 天禧四年
Tiānxǐ 4
四月
4th
29 開泰九年
Kāitài 9
四月
4th
30 0
1020 天禧四年
Tiānxǐ 4
五月
5th
30 開泰九年
Kāitài 9
五月
5th
29 +1
1021 天禧五年
Tiānxǐ 5
十一月
11th
30 太平元年
Tàipíng 1
十一月
11th
29 0
1021 天禧五年
Tiānxǐ 5
十二月
12th
29 太平元年
Tàipíng 1
十二月
12th
30 -1
1024 天聖二年
Tiānshèng 2
十一月
11th
29 太平四年
Tàipíng 4
十一月
11h
30 0
1024 天聖二年
Tiānshèng 2
十二月
12th
30 太平四年
Tàipíng 4
十二月
12th
29 +1
1025 天聖三年
Tiānshèng 3
六月
6th
29 太平五年
Tàipíng 5
六月
6th
30 0
1025 天聖三年
Tiānshèng 3
七月
7th
30 太平五年
Tàipíng 5
七月
7th
29 +1
1031 天聖九年
Tiānshèng 9
八月
8th
29 景福元年
Jǐngfú 1
八月
8th
30 0
1031 天聖九年
Tiānshèng 9
九月
9th
30 景福元年
Jǐngfú 1
九月
9th
29 +1
1039 寶元二年
Bǎoyuán 2
五月
5th
29 重熙八年
Chóngxī 8
五月
5th
30 0
1039 寶元二年
Bǎoyuán 2
六月
6th
30 重熙八年
Chóngxī 8
六月
6th
29 +1
1040 康定元年
Kāngdìng 1
四月
4th
29 重熙九年
Chóngxī 9
四月
4th
30 0
1040 康定元年
Kāngdìng 1
五月
5th
30 重熙九年
Chóngxī 9
五月
5th
29 +1
1040 康定元年
Kāngdìng 1
十一月
11th
30 重熙九年
Chóngxī 9
十一月
11th
29 0
1040 康定元年
Kāngdìng 1
十二月
12th
29 重熙九年
Chóngxī 9
十二月
12th
30 -1
1044 慶曆四年
Qìnglì 4
十月
10th
29 重熙十三年
Chóngxī 13
十月
10th
30 0
1044 慶曆四年
Qìnglì 4
十一月
11th
30 重熙十三年
Chóngxī 13
十一月
11th
29 +1
1045 慶曆五年
Qìnglì 5
二月
2nd
29 重熙十四年
Chóngxī 14
二月
2nd
30 0
1045 慶曆五年
Qìnglì 5
三月
3rd
30 重熙十四年
Chóngxī 14
三月
3rd
29 +1
1049 皇祐元年
Huángyòu 1
十一月
11th
30 重熙十八年
Chóngxī 18
十一月
11th
29 0
1049 皇祐元年
Huángyòu 1
十二月
12th
29 重熙十八年
Chóngxī 18
十二月
12th
30 -1
1053 皇祐五年
Huángyòu 5
正月
1st
29 重熙二十二年
Chóngxī 22
正月
1st
30 0
1053 皇祐五年
Huángyòu 5
二月
2nd
30 重熙二十二年
Chóngxī 22
二月
2nd
29 +1
1056 至和三年
Zhìhé 3
五月
5th
29 清寧二年
Qīngníng 2
五月
5th
30 0
1056 至和三年
Zhìhé 3
六月
6th
30 清寧二年
Qīngníng 2
六月
6th
29 +1
1059 嘉祐四年
Jiāyòu 4
五月
5th
29 清寧五年
Qīngníng 5
五月
5th
30 0
1059 嘉祐四年
Jiāyòu 4
六月
6th
30 清寧五年
Qīngníng 5
六月
6th
29 +1
1059 嘉祐四年
Jiāyòu 4
十一月
11th
30 清寧五年
Qīngníng 5
十一月
11th
29 0
1059 嘉祐四年
Jiāyòu 4
十二月
12th
29 清寧五年
Qīngníng 5
十二月
12th
30 -1
1070 熙寧三年
Xīníng 3
七月
7th
29 咸雍六年
Xiányōng 6
七月
7th
30 0
1070 熙寧三年
Xīníng 3
八月
8th
30 咸雍六年
Xiányōng 6
八月
8th
29 +1
1073 熙寧六年
Xīníng 6
四月
4th
29 咸雍九年
Xiányōng 9
四月
4th
30 0
1073 熙寧六年
Xīníng 6
五月
5th
30 咸雍九年
Xiányōng 9
五月
5th
29 +1
1074 熙寧七年
Xīníng 7
十二月
12th
30 咸雍十年
Xiányōng 10
十二月
12th
29 0
1075 熙寧八年
Xīníng 8
正月
1st
29 大康元年
Dàkāng 1
正月
1st
30 -1
1093 元祐八年
Yuányòu 8
十二月
12th
29 大安九年
Dà'ān 9
十二月
12th
30 0
1094 元祐九年
Yuányòu 9
正月
1st
30 大安十年
Dà'ān 10
正月
1st
29 +1
1102 崇寧元年
Chóngníng 1
九月
9th
29 乾統二年
Qiántǒng 2
九月
9th
30 0
1102 崇寧元年
Chóngníng 1
十月
10th
30 乾統二年
Qiántǒng 2
十月
10th
29 +1
1103 崇寧二年
Chóngníng 2
七月
7th
29 乾統三年
Qiántǒng 3
七月
7th
30 0
1103 崇寧二年
Chóngníng 2
八月
8th
30 乾統三年
Qiántǒng 3
八月
8th
29 +1
1105 崇寧四年
Chóngníng 4
閏二月
+ 2nd
29 乾統五年
Qiántǒng 5
三月
3rd
30 0
1105 崇寧四年
Chóngníng 4
三月
3rd
30 乾統五年
Qiántǒng 5
閏三月
+ 3rd
29 +1
1113 政和三年
Zhènghé 3
九月
9th
29 天慶三年
Tiānqìng 3
九月
9th
30 0
1113 政和三年
Zhènghé 3
十月
10th
30 天慶三年
Tiānqìng 3
十月
10th
29 +1
1121 宣和三年
Xuānhé 3
八月
8th
29 保大元年
Bǎodà 1
八月
8th
30 0
1121 宣和三年
Xuānhé 3
九月
9th
30 保大元年
Bǎodà 1
九月
9th
29 +1


Jin Calendar

The Jin calendar seems to have been more closely related to the Song calendar than the Liao calendar was, as there are no instances of intercalary months that are not synchronized between the Song and Jin calendars. Nevertheless, there are sixteen instances where two consecutive Jin months have different lengths than the corresponding Song months, as shown in the table below.


Julian
Year
Song Calendar Jin Calendar
Era Year Month Days Era Year Month Days Offset
1129 建炎三年
三月
29 天會七年
三月
30 0
1129 建炎三年
四月
30 天會七年
四月
29 +1
1134 紹興四年
十一月
29 天會十二年
十一月
30 0
1134 紹興四年
十二月
30 天會十二年
十二月
29 +1
1145 紹興十五年
十月
29 皇統五年
十月
30 0
1145 紹興十五年
十一月
30 皇統五年
十一月
29 +1
1147 紹興十七年
二月
29 皇統七年
二月
30 0
1147 紹興十七年
三月
30 皇統七年
三月
29 +1
1147 紹興十七年
六月
29 皇統七年
六月
30 0
1147 紹興十七年
七月
30 皇統七年
七月
29 +1
1152 紹興二十二年
三月
29 天德四年
三月
30 0
1152 紹興二十二年
四月
30 天德四年
四月
29 +1
1155 紹興二十五年
八月
29 貞元三年
八月
30 0
1155 紹興二十五年
九月
30 貞元三年
九月
29 +1
1163 隆興元年
七月
29 大定三年
七月
30 0
1163 隆興元年
八月
30 大定三年
八月
29 +1
1168 乾道四年
九月
29 大定八年
九月
30 0
1168 乾道四年
十月
30 大定八年
十月
29 +1
1176 淳熙二年
十二月
29 大定十五年
十二月
30 0
1176 淳熙三年
正月
30 大定十六年
正月
29 +1
1178 淳熙五年
九月
30 大定十八年
九月
29 0
1178 淳熙五年
十月
29 大定十八年
十月
30 -1
1184 淳熙十一年
八月
29 大定二十四年
八月
30 0
1184 淳熙十一年
九月
30 大定二十四年
九月
29 +1
1198 慶元四年
十月
29 承安三年
十月
30 0
1198 慶元四年
十一月
30 承安三年
十一月
29 +1
1207 開禧三年
四月
30 泰和七年
四月
29 0
1207 開禧三年
五月
29 泰和七年
五月
30 -1
1207 開禧三年
十月
30 泰和七年
十月
29 0
1207 開禧三年
十一月
29 泰和七年
十一月
30 -1
1209 嘉定元年
十二月
29 泰和八年
十二月
30 0
1209 嘉定二年
正月
30 泰和九年
正月
29 +1


Intercalary Months

An intercalary month is calculated as the first month in a year during which a midpoint (zhōngqì 中氣) solar term does not fall. Before the introduction by Jesuits in 1645 of Western astronomical methods of calculating the solar terms, this happened once every 32-35 months, occuring with equal frequency after any month, with the result that there was an intercalary month every two or three calendar years. In order for a month not to include a midpoint solar term, the month must start just after a midpoint solar term and end just before the following midpoint solar term. As solar terms occur on approximately the same day with respect to either the Julian or the Gregorian calendar, this means that during the Liao dynasty intercalary months always start on between the 14th and 19th day of a Julian month or between the 19th and 24th day of a Gregorian month. The intercalary month is named after the preceding month, so, for example, an intercalary month occuring after the 4th lunar month (四月) is called the "intercalary 4th month" (閏四月).

The Liao calendar has the same intercalary months as found in the calendars used by other dynasties and kingdoms during the Five Dynasties period (907–960), but the Liao and Song calendars used different methods for calculating the solar terms, with the result that occasionally the month on which an intercalary month falls is different by one month in the two calendars. During the Liao dynasty there were nine occasions when the intercalary month was one month earlier or one month later than the intercalary month in the Song calendar, as shown in the table below. Each time the intercalary months are unaligned, two conecutive months are numbered differently in the Liao and Song calendars (e.g. in 999, Song intercalary 3rd month = Liao 4th month, and Song 4th month = Liao intercalary 4th month).


Julian
Year
Cyclical
Year
Song Calendar Liao Calendar
Era Year Intercalary
Month
Era Year Intercalary
Month
985 乙酉
yǐyǒu
雍熙二年
Yōngxī 2
9th 統和三年
Tǒnghé 3
8th
999 己亥
jǐhài
咸平二年
Xiánpíng 2
3rd 統和十七年
Tǒnghé 17
4th
1001–1002 辛丑
xīnchǒu
咸平四年
Xiánpíng 4
12th 統和十九年
Tǒnghé 19
11th
1015 乙卯
yǐmǎo
大中祥符八年
Dàzhōng Xiángfú 8
6th 開泰四年
Kāitài 4
7th
1029 己巳
jǐsì
天聖七年
Tiānshèng 7
2nd 太平九年
Tàipíng 9
3rd
1064 甲辰
jiǎchén
治平元年
Zhìpíng 1
5th 清寧十年
Qīngníng 10
6th
1078 丁巳/戊午
dīngsì/wùwǔ
元豐元年
Yuánfēng 1
1st 大康三年
Dàkāng 3
12th
1080 庚申
gēngshēn
元豐三年
Yuánfēng 3
9th 大康六年
Dàkāng 6
8th
1105 乙酉
yǐyǒu
崇寧四年
Chóngníng 4
2nd 乾統五年
Qiántǒng 5
3rd

When reading Liao dynasty dates these anomalies need to be borne in mind. For example, the Khitan Large Script Epitaph for Court Attendant Dorlipun (KL05) states that Dorlipun died on the 22nd day of the intercalary 8th month of the 6th year of the Dàkāng era (7th October 1080 in the Julian calendar). According to the Song calendar there was no intercalary 8th month in that year, and so if you wanted to correlate the date of Dorlipun's death with events mentioned in the History of the Song you would have to remember that the Liao intercalary 8th month corresponds to the 9th month in the Song calendar, and the Liao 9th month corresponds to the intercalary 9th month in the Song calendar.

Intercalary months are recorded in three of the Khitan inscriptions I have examined, two small script epitaphs and one large script epitaph:

  • 2nd day of the intercalary 9th month of the 3rd year of the Tàipíng era (1023) [KS36]
  • 22nd day of the intercalary 8th month of the 6th year of the Dàkāng era (1080) [KL05]
  • 25th day of the intercalary 8th month of the 10th year of the Qiántǒng era (1110) [KS29]

From these we know that the Khitan Large Script word for "intercalary" is , and the Khitan Small Script word for "intercalary" is . The Khitan Small script phonograms have been reconstructed as reading something like <p-ul-uh> (Kane 2009 p. 70). *puluh would seem to be cognate with Manchu fulu ᡶᡠᠯᡠ "surplus, excess" (Kane 2009 p. 103), although neither the Manchu word for "intercalary" (anagan ᠠᠨᠠᡤᠠᠨ) nor the Jurchen word for "intercalary" (alaxa) are related. Presumably the Khitan Large Script word is read *pu-luh or *pul-uh. The Khitan Large Script word occurs quite commonly in epitaphs in non-date contexts (the two characters only rarely occur outside of this collocation), and so it is probably a Khitan word meaning something like "surplus, excess, extra" that is borrowed to mean "intercalary" in dates.



Date Format

The full format for a date in the Khitan Large Script or the Khitan Small Script generally conforms to the following pattern (given in modified Backus-Naur Form):


<date> ::= [<year>] [<month>] [<day>]

<year> ::= [<year-format-1>] | [<year-format-2>]

<year-format-1> ::= [<era-name>] [<year-number>] [<cyclical-term>] ["year"]

<year-format-2> ::= [<era-name>] [<year-number>] ["year"] "order-of-the-year" <cyclical-term>

<month> ::= [<season>] [<month-qualifier>] <month-number> "month" [<cyclical-term> "beginning"]

<day> ::= [<day-format-1>] | [<day-format-2>]

<day-format-1> ::= <day-number> [<cyclical-term>] ["day"]

<day-format-2> ::= <day-number> "day" <cyclical-term>

<era-name> ::= <Liao-era-name> | <Jin-era-name>

<Liao-era-name> ::= "Shéncè" | "Bǎoníng" | "Tǒnghé" | "Kāitài" | "Tàipíng" | "Chóngxī" | "Qīngníng" | "Xiányōng" | "Dàkāng" | "Dà'ān" | "Shòuchāng" | "Qiántǒng" | "Tiānqìng"

<Jin-era-name> ::= "Tiānfǔ" | "Tiānhuì" | "Tiānjuàn" | "Huángtǒng" | "Tiāndé" | "Dàdìng"

<year-number> ::= "first" | "two" .. "twenty-nine"

<season> ::= "spring" | "summer" | "autumn" | "winter"

<month-qualifier> ::= "first" | "extra"

<month-number> ::= "head" | "two" .. "twelve"

<day-number> ::= "one" .. "thirty"

<cyclical-term> ::= [<colour>] <animal>

<colour> ::= "green" | "red" | "yellow" | "white" | "black"

<animal> ::= "rat" | "ox" | "tiger" | "rabbit" | "dragon" | "snake" | "horse" | "goat" | "monkey" | "rooster" | "dog" | "pig"


For example:

  • KL05 l.13: Dàkāng six year extra eight month twenty-two day = "22nd day of the intercalary 8th month of the 6th year of the Dàkāng era"
  • KS02 l.27: Qīngníng five yellow pig spring two month fourteen day = "14th day of the 2nd month in spring of the 5th (yellow pig) [year] of the Qīngníng era"
  • KL05 l.15: Dàkāng seven white rooster year three month yellow rat beginning fifteen black tiger day = "15th (black tiger) day of the 3rd month (beginning on a yellow rat day) of the 7th (white rooster) year of the Dàkāng era"
  • KS05 l.1: Chóngxī twenty-four order-of-the-year green goat eight month red dog beginning four day yellow ox = "4th (yellow ox) day of the 8th month (beginning on a red dog day) of the 24th year (green goat cyclical year) of the Chóngxī era"

There are two formats for specifying the year. Most commonly the year is specified simply as a year number followed by the cyclical term for the year and then the word "year", e.g. Dàkāng seven white rooster year (KL05 l.15). But sometimes the year is specified as a year number optionally followed by the word "year", and then a term meaning "order of the year" followed by the cyclical term for the year, e.g. Tiāndé two year order-of-the-year white horse (KS23 l.50). The latter format is only attested in Khitan Small Script epitaphs:

  • KS05 l.1: Chóngxī twenty-four order-of-the-year green goat eight month red dog beginning four day yellow ox = "24th year of the Chóngxī era, corresponding to the cyclical year of the green goat ..."
  • KS07 l.4: Dàkāng first year order-of-the-year green rabbit eleven month yellow goat beginning three day white rooster = "1st year of the Dàkāng era, corresponding to the cyclical year of the green rabbit ..."
  • KS04 l.4: Shòuchāng seven year order-of-the-year white snake head month black dog beginning thirteen green dog = "7th year of the Shòuchāng era, corresponding to the cyclical year of the white snake ..."
  • KS29 l.4: Qiántǒng ten year order-of-the-year white tiger extra eight month red rooster beginning twenty-five white rooster = "10th year of the Qiántǒng era, corresponding to the cyclical year of the white tiger ..."
  • KS23 l.50: Tiāndé two year order-of-the-year white horse nine month green dog beginning nineteen day = "2nd year of the Tiāndé era, corresponding to the cyclical year of the white horse ..."

The Khitan Small Script term preceding the cyclical term for the year is <ai-en se-le-bo>, where the first two phonograms mean "of the year" (the character for "year" plus a genitive suffix) and the following three phonograms apparently mean "to follow", the whole meaning "order of the year" (Kane 2009 pp. 110, 128), referring to the year's order in the sixty-year cycle.

There are also two formats for specifiying the month. The month is often simply specified as a month number followed by the word "month", e.g. "head month" or "nine month". Except in a single, anomalous and problematic instance on the Epitaph for Yelü Changyun (KL12) discussed in Note 2, the cyclical term for a months is not given. However, in many cases the month is followed by the cyclical term for the first day of the month, and only then by the day number and/or cyclical term for the day in this month that is the topic of the date. This format is peculiar to Khitan, and is not paralleled in Chinese date formats. The format is attested in both the Khitan Large Script and the Khitan Small Script:

  • KL05 l.15: Dàkāng seven white rooster year three month yellow rat beginning {1081-04-12} fifteen black tiger day {1081-04-26}
  • KL09 l.24: Dà'ān eight black monkey year three month green monkey beginning {1092-04-10} two green rooster day {1092-04-11}
  • KL12 l.17: Qīngníng seven white ox year twelve month white dragon beginning {1062-01-14} twenty-one white rat day {1062-02-03}
  • KL12 l.20: Qīngníng eight black tiger year nine month green snake beginning {1062-10-06} twenty-six white horse day {1062-10-31}
  • KS02 l.43: Dà'ān four yellow dragon year head month yellow rooster beginning {1088-01-27} thirteen day {1088-02-08}
  • KS04 l.4: Shòuchāng seven year order-of-the-year white snake head month black dog beginning {1101-01-31} thirteen green dog {1101-02-12}
  • KS05 l.1: Chóngxī twenty-four order-of-the-year green goat eight month red dog beginning {1055-08-25} four day yellow ox {1055-08-28}
  • KS06 l.11: Dàkāng two red dragon year three month red dragon beginning {1076-04-06} six day white rooster {1076-04-11}
  • KS07 l.4: Dàkāng first year order-of-the-year green rabbit eleven month yellow goat beginning {1075-12-11} three day white rooster {1075-12-13}
  • KS10 l.25: Tiānqìng five green goat year four month white rat beginning {1115-04-26} ten yellow rooster day {1115-05-05}
  • KS14 l.24: [...] pig year four month yellow horse beginning {1143-04-17} twenty-eight green rooster day {1143-05-14}
  • KS14 l.38: Dàdìng ten white tiger year twelve month red horse beginning {1171-01-08} twenty-five white horse day {1171-02-01}
  • KS23 l.50: Tiāndé two year order-of-the-year white horse nine month green dog beginning {1150-09-23} nineteen day {1150-10-11}
  • KS27 l.22: Shòuchāng seven white snake year two month black dragon beginning {1101-03-02} twenty-eight yellow goat day {1101-03-29}
  • KS29 l.4: Qiántǒng ten year order-of-the-year white tiger extra eight month red rooster beginning {1110-09-16} twenty-five white rooster {1110-10-10}
  • KS29 l.4: ten month red monkey beginning {1110-11-14} five day white rat {1110-11-18}
  • KS29 l.5: eleven month green ox beginning {1110-12-13} eight day black monkey {1110-12-20}
  • KS32 l.3: yellow rabbit year four month black rooster beginning {1099-04-23} twenty-eight yellow rat day {1099-05-20}

The word that follows the cyclical term for the first day of the month is or in the Khitan Large Script, and <ho.le.bun> or <ho.le.bo.n> in the Khitan Small Script. Occuring in dates, this word is normally translated into Chinese in modern Khitan scholarship as 朔 shuò "day of the new moon", but this is not the literal meaning of the word. The exact same word is used elsewhere in epitaphs to mean a "preface" (Chinese 序 ), and given its use in dates to refer to the first day of a month, the base meaning of the word would seem to be something like "beginning".

Kane 2009 p. 215 Note 61 takes <ho.le.bun> to mean the "first [period of the month]" and mistakenly reads the preceding cyclical date as the cyclical month: "On the day of the white cock of the third day of the first period of the month of the yellow goat, the eleventh month of the year of the blue hare of the first year of the Dakang period" [KS07 l.4]. On p. 116 he takes <ho.le.bun> as a personal name, Holbun [KS14 l.38]. I myself misunderstood the "month beginning on the cyclical day" formula as referring to the cyclical term corresponding to the month in this blog post on a Khitan mirror in July 2011. These examples all illustrate the importance of understanding dates to the interpretation of Khitan inscriptions.



Glossary of Khitan Calendrical Terms

The following tables list all Khitan Large Script and Khitan Small Script words that occur in the Khitan dates recorded in this blog post. Glyph variants have been standardized where appropriate. The phonetic transcriptions for Khitan Small Script polygrams are derived from Kane 2009 (see pages 26–27 for an explanation). These are only very approximate reconstructions, sometimes no more than an educated guess. In some cases the "reading" is just a conventional way of referring to a character using the pronunciation of a Chinese character with a similar graphic shape (e.g. the phonogram is transcribed kả merely because it resembles the Chinese character 卡 , which is probably coincidental).


General Terms

English Chinese Large Khitan Small Khitan
year
ai
month
sair
day
ñair
hour, time
po
that
("that year ...")

qi
beginning
(referring to the first cyclical day of a month)





ho-l-bun
ho-l-bo-ń
order of the year
(referring to the cyclical year corresponding to an era year)
歲次



ai-en se-le-bo
extra
(referring to an intercalary month)


p-ul-uh
head
(referring to the first month of a year)

nai
first
(referring to the first year of an era, or indicating the month preceding an intercalary month)

yủ-úr
middle
(referring to the middle month of a season)


dau-úr-ún

Four Seasons

English Chinese Large Khitan Small Khitan
Spring
heu-úr
Summer
heu-úr
Autumn

n-am-úr
Winter
ju-un

Numbers

English Chinese Large Khitan Small Khitan
one

two

three

four

five

tau
six

seven

eight

nine

ten
twenty 二十
thirty 三十

The Khitan Small Script numbers one through nine occur in dotted and undotted forms, but only the undotted forms occur when referring to days, months and years.


Twelve Zodiac Animals

English Chinese Large Khitan Small Khitan
rat, mouse

?-hu
ox
chǒu

uni
tiger
yín


qa-ha-as
rabbit, hare
mǎo




tau-lí-a
dragon
chén


lu
snake




mu-ho-o
horse


mo-ri
goat, sheep
wèi


iam-a (iam-ia)
monkey
shēn



p-o-o
rooster, hen
yǒu


te-qo-a
dog

ńi-qo
pig
hài

ui

The Khitan large script words for rabbit, snake and monkey are sometimes written as two separate characters, and sometimes written as two characters ligated together vertically to fit into a single character space.


Five Colours

English Chinese Large Khitan Small Khitan
blue/green (wood) 甲/乙
jiǎ/






s-iau-qú
s-iau-qu (s-au-qu)
red (fire) 丙/丁
bǐng/dīng






l-iau-qú (l-iu-qú)
l-iau-qu
yellow/gold (earth) 戊/己
/


white (gold) 庚/辛
gēng/xīn


black (water) 壬/癸
rén/guǐ



yô-ú (yô-ún)
yô-iú

The Small Khitan words for "yellow" and "white" occur in undotted and dotted forms. The undotted forms of "yellow" and "white" are most common preceding the name of a zodiac animal, but usage is not consistent in the extant inscriptions, and dotted forms are occasionally attested before the name of a zodiac animal as well. The Small Khitan words for "green", "red" and "black" each occur in two spellings, with different final phonograms. However, there is no consistency in extant inscriptions about when to use which spelling (different spellings of the same colour word may be used before the same zodiac animal in different inscriptions), as shown in the table below.


Attested Khitan Small Script Colour Names

Zodiac Animal green
(wood)
red
(fire)
yellow
(earth)
white
(gold)
black
(water)
甲/乙
jiǎ/
丙/丁
bǐng/dīng
戊/己
/
庚/辛
gēng/xīn
壬/癸
rén/guǐ
rat







ox
chǒu







tiger
yín










rabbit
mǎo








dragon
chén







snake







horse









goat
wèi









monkey
shēn









rooster
yǒu









dog












pig
hài








Liao Era Names

Name Date Large Khitan Small Khitan
Shéncè 神冊
"Divine Proclamation"
916–922
Bǎoníng 保寧
"Protect Tranquility"
969–979
Tǒnghé 統和
"Unified Peace"
983–1012




Heaven se-bu-o-ho
Kāitài 開泰
"Open Peace"
1012–1021



Heaven ńi-l-û-er
Tàipíng 太平
"Great Calm""
1021–1031



Great ei-ie-ra-ú
Chóngxī 重熙
"Repeated Splendour"
1032–1055








Heaven û-dû-l-ha-a-ar
Heaven ordu-l-ha-ar
Qīngníng 清寧
"Clear and Tranquil"
1055–1064


Heaven as-ar
Xiányōng 咸雍
"All Harmonious"
1065–1074



Heaven t-ud
(Heaven) d-uŋ
Dàkāng 大康
"Great Well-Being"
1075–1084



Great t-iu-rẻn
Dà'ān 大安
"Great Peace"
1085–1094








Great û-dû-ó-o-ón
Great ordu-ó-o-ón
Shòuchāng 壽昌
"Longevity and Prosperity"
1095–1101


Great s-en
Qiántǒng 乾統
"Celestial Unity"
1101–1110







Heaven ar-ó-o-ho
Heaven ar-û-o-ho
Tiānqìng 天慶
"Heaven Celebrates"
1111–1120




Heaven pu-kả-l-ge-er

The Khitan Small Script word for the Kāitài era is mentioned in the Epitaph for Han Dilie (KS27 l.6), but it is not used for any specific date.


Jin Era Names

Name Date Large Khitan Small Khitan
Tiānfǔ 天輔
"Heaven Assists"
1117–1123



Great zủ-ge-én
Tiānhuì 天會
"Heaven Meets"
1123–1137







Heaven d-iu-er
Heaven t-iu-er
Tiānjuàn 天眷
"Heaven Cares"
1138–1140







Heaven d-em-ei-er
Heaven t-em-ei-er
Huángtǒng 皇統
"Imperial Unity"
1141–1149



de-po hó-l-bo-ń
Tiāndé 天德
"Heaven's Virtue"
1149–1153



Heaven d-iu-rẻn
Dàdìng 大定
"Great Stability"
1161–1189







Great doro-a-án
Great doro-ha-am

The second Khitan Small Script spelling for the Dàdìng era is given in Kane 2009 p. 159, but I have not seen it in any of the epitaphs I have had access to.



Liao and Jin Chronologies

The tables below cover the periods of the Liao dynasty and Jin dynasty, year by year from 916 to 1234. All Khitan Large Script and Khitan Small Script dates that can be identified as referring to a specific year are given in a deliberately literal English translation under the year they refer to. The corresponding Julian date is given in curly braces in YYYY-MM-DD format. Dates that only refer to a particular day or month, but do not directly or indirectly specify a year, are not included at present. The Khitan text of the inscriptions is provided for reference after the chronological tables, and the sources ("KL" and "KS" numbers) are identified at the bottom of this page.


Liao Chronology (916–1125)

Emperor Taizu 太祖
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
神冊
Shéncè
1 [後梁] 貞明 2 丙子
red rat
916
2 [後梁] 貞明 3 丁丑
red ox
917
3 [後梁] 貞明 4 戊寅
yellow tiger
918
4 [後梁] 貞明 5 己卯
yellow rabbit
919
5 [後梁] 貞明 6 庚辰
white dragon
920
6 [後梁] 貞明 7
[後梁] 龍德 1
辛巳
white snake
921 KL13 l.6: Shence six year
7 [後梁] 龍德 2 壬午
black horse
922
天贊
Tiānzàn
1 [後梁] 龍德 2 壬午
black horse
922
2 [後梁] 龍德 3
[後唐] 同光 1
癸未
black goat
923
3 [後唐] 同光 2 甲申
green monkey
924
4 [後唐] 同光 3 乙酉
green rooster
925
5 [後唐] 同光 4
[後唐] 天成 1
丙戌
red dog
926

Emperor Taizong 太宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
天顯
Tiānxiǎn
1 [後唐] 天成 2 丙戌
red dog
926
2 [後唐] 天成 3 丁亥
red pig
927
3 [後唐] 天成 4 戊子
yellow rat
928
4 [後唐] 天成 5 己丑
yellow ox
929
5 [後唐] 天成 6
[後唐] 長興 1
庚寅
white tiger
930
6 [後唐] 長興 2 辛卯
white rabbit
931
7 [後唐] 長興 3 壬辰
black dragon
932
8 [後唐] 長興 4 癸巳
black snake
933
9 [後唐] 應順 1
[後唐] 清泰 1
甲午
green horse
934
10 [後唐] 清泰 2 乙未
green goat
935
11 [後唐] 清泰 3
[後晉] 天福 1
丙申
red monkey
936
12 [後晉] 天福 2 丁酉
red rooster
937
13 [後晉] 天福 3 戊戌
yellow dog
938
會同
Huìtóng
1 [後晉] 天福 3 戊戌
yellow dog
938
2 [後晉] 天福 4 己亥
yellow pig
939
3 [後晉] 天福 5 庚子
white rat
940
4 [後晉] 天福 6 辛丑
white ox
941
5 [後晉] 天福 7 壬寅
black tiger
942
6 [後晉] 天福 8 癸卯
black rabbit
943
7 [後晉] 天福 9
[後晉] 開運 1
甲辰
green dragon
944
8 [後晉] 開運 2 乙巳
green snake
945
9 [後晉] 開運 3 丙午
red horse
946
10 [後漢] 天福 12 丁未
red goat
947
大同
Dàtóng
1 [後漢] 天福 12 丁未
red goat
947

Emperor Shizong 世宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
天祿
Tiānlù
1 [後漢] 天福 12 丁未
red goat
947
2 [後漢] 乾祐 1 戊申
yellow monkey
948
3 [後漢] 乾祐 2 己酉
yellow rooster
949
4 [後漢] 乾祐 3 庚戌
white dog
950
5 [後周] 廣順 1 辛亥
white pig
951

Emperor Muzong 穆宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
應曆
Yīnglì
1 [後周] 廣順 1 辛亥
white pig
951
2 [後周] 廣順 2 壬子
black rat
952
3 [後周] 廣順 3 癸丑
black ox
953
4 [後周] 顯德 1 甲寅
green tiger
954
5 [後周] 顯德 2 乙卯
green rabbit
955
6 [後周] 顯德 3 丙辰
red dragon
956
7 [後周] 顯德 4 丁巳
red snake
957
8 [後周] 顯德 5 戊午
yellow horse
958
9 [後周] 顯德 6 己未
yellow goat
959
10 [後周] 顯德 7
[北宋] 建隆 1
庚申
white monkey
960
11 [北宋] 建隆 2 辛酉
white rooster
961
12 [北宋] 建隆 3 壬戌
black dog
962
13 [北宋] 建隆 4
[北宋] 乾德 1
癸亥
black pig
963
14 [北宋] 乾德 2 甲子
green rat
964
15 [北宋] 乾德 3 乙丑
green ox
965
16 [北宋] 乾德 4 丙寅
red tiger
966
17 [北宋] 乾德 5 丁卯
red rabbit
967
18 [北宋] 乾德 6
[北宋] 開寶 1
戊辰
yellow dragon
968
19 [北宋] 開寶 2 己巳
yellow snake
969

Emperor Jingzong 景宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
保寧
Bǎoníng
1 [北宋] 開寶 2 己巳
yellow snake
969
2 [北宋] 開寶 3 庚午
white horse
970
3 [北宋] 開寶 4 辛未
white goat
971
4 [北宋] 開寶 5 壬申
black monkey
972
5 [北宋] 開寶 6 癸酉
black rooster
973 KL08 l.7: Baoning five year
6 [北宋] 開寶 7 甲戌
green dog
974
7 [北宋] 開寶 8 乙亥
green pig
975
8 [北宋] 開寶 9
[北宋] 太平興國 1
丙子
red rat
976
9 [北宋] 太平興國 2 丁丑
red ox
977
10 [北宋] 太平興國 3 戊寅
yellow tiger
978
11 [北宋] 太平興國 4 己卯
yellow rabbit
979
乾亨
Qiánhēng
1 [北宋] 太平興國 4 己卯
yellow rabbit
979
2 [北宋] 太平興國 5 庚辰
white dragon
980
3 [北宋] 太平興國 6 辛巳
white snake
981
4 [北宋] 太平興國 7 壬午
black horse
982
5 [北宋] 太平興國 8 癸未
black goat
983

Emperor Shengzong 聖宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
統和
Tǒnghé
1 [北宋] 太平興國 8 癸未
black goat
983 KS27 l.5: Tǒnghé first year
2 [北宋] 太平興國 9
[北宋] 雍熙 1
甲申
green monkey
984
3 [北宋] 雍熙 2 乙酉
green rooster
985
4 [北宋] 雍熙 3 丙戌
red dog
986
5 [北宋] 雍熙 4 丁亥
red pig
987
6 [北宋] 端拱 1 戊子
yellow rat
988
7 [北宋] 端拱 2 己丑
yellow ox
989
8 [北宋] 淳化 1 庚寅
white tiger
990
9 [北宋] 淳化 2 辛卯
white rabbit
991
10 [北宋] 淳化 3 壬辰
black dragon
992
11 [北宋] 淳化 4 癸巳
black snake
993
12 [北宋] 淳化 5 甲午
green horse
994
13 [北宋] 至道 1 乙未
green goat
995
14 [北宋] 至道 2 丙申
red monkey
996
15 [北宋] 至道 3 丁酉
red rooster
997
16 [北宋] 咸平 1 戊戌
yellow dog
998
17 [北宋] 咸平 2 己亥
yellow pig
999
18 [北宋] 咸平 3 庚子
white rat
1000 KL12 l.10: Tǒnghé eighteen white rat year green dog month white goat day [Note 2]
19 [北宋] 咸平 4 辛丑
white ox
1001
20 [北宋] 咸平 5 壬寅
black tiger
1002
21 [北宋] 咸平 6 癸卯
black rabbit
1003
22 [北宋] 景德 1 甲辰
green dragon
1004 SealA: Tǒnghé twenty-two year five month day
23 [北宋] 景德 2 乙巳
green snake
1005
24 [北宋] 景德 3 丙午
red horse
1006
25 [北宋] 景德 4 丁未
red goat
1007
26 [北宋] 大中祥符 1 戊申
yellow monkey
1008
27 [北宋] 大中祥符 2 己酉
yellow rooster
1009
28 [北宋] 大中祥符 3 庚戌
white dog
1010
29 [北宋] 大中祥符 4 辛亥
white pig
1011 KL08 l.11: Tǒnghé twenty-nine year
30 [北宋] 大中祥符 5 壬子
black rat
1012
開泰
Kāitài
1 [北宋] 大中祥符 5 壬子
black rat
1012
2 [北宋] 大中祥符 6 癸丑
black ox
1013
3 [北宋] 大中祥符 7 甲寅
green tiger
1014
4 [北宋] 大中祥符 8 乙卯
green rabbit
1015
5 [北宋] 大中祥符 9 丙辰
red dragon
1016
6 [北宋] 天禧 1 丁巳
red snake
1017
7 [北宋] 天禧 2 戊午
yellow horse
1018
8 [北宋] 天禧 3 己未
yellow goat
1019
9 [北宋] 天禧 4 庚申
white monkey
1020
10 [北宋] 天禧 5 辛酉
white rooster
1021
太平
Tàipíng
1 [北宋] 天禧 5 辛酉
white rooster
1021
2 [北宋] 乾興 1 壬戌
black dog
1022
3 [北宋] 天聖 1 癸亥
black pig
1023 KS36 l.8: Tàipíng three red pig year extra nine month two day {1023-10-19} [Note 1]
4 [北宋] 天聖 2 甲子
green rat
1024
5 [北宋] 天聖 3 乙丑
green ox
1025
6 [北宋] 天聖 4 丙寅
red tiger
1026 KS26 l.13: Tàipíng red tiger year head month twenty-nine day {1026-02-19}
7 [北宋] 天聖 5 丁卯
red rabbit
1027
8 [北宋] 天聖 6 戊辰
yellow dragon
1028
9 [北宋] 天聖 7 己巳
yellow snake
1029
10 [北宋] 天聖 8 庚午
white horse
1030
11 [北宋] 天聖 9 辛未
white goat
1031
景福
Jǐngfú
1 [北宋] 天聖 9 辛未
white goat
1031
2 [北宋] 天聖 10
[北宋] 明道 1
[西夏] 顯道 1
壬申
black monkey
1032

Emperor Xingzong 興宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
重熙
Chóngxī
1 [北宋] 天聖 10
[北宋] 明道 1
[西夏] 顯道 1
壬申
black monkey
1032
2 [北宋] 明道 2
[西夏] 顯道 2
癸酉
black rooster
1033 KL09 l.6: Chóngxī two year five month thirteen day {1033-06-12}
3 [北宋] 景祐 1
[西夏] 顯道 3
[西夏] 開運 1
[西夏] 廣運 1
甲戌
green dog
1034
4 [北宋] 景祐 2
[西夏] 廣運 2
乙亥
green pig
1035 KL08 l.15: Chóngxī four year six month
5 [北宋] 景祐 3
[西夏] 廣運 3
[西夏] 大慶 1
丙子
red rat
1036
6 [北宋] 景祐 4
[西夏] 大慶 2
丁丑
red ox
1037 KL05 l.10: Chóngxī six yellow tiger year seven month eighteen day {1037-08-31} or {1038-08-21} [Note 1]
7 [北宋] 景祐 5
[北宋] 寶元 1
[西夏] 大慶 3
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 1
戊寅
yellow tiger
1038
8 [北宋] 寶元 2
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 2
己卯
yellow rabbit
1039
9 [北宋] 寶元 3
[北宋] 康定 1
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 3
庚辰
white dragon
1040
10 [北宋] 康定 2
[北宋] 慶曆 1
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 4
辛巳
white snake
1041 KL08 l.19: Chóngxī ten snake year two month fifteen green horse day {1041-03-19}
KS32 l.10: Chóngxī ten white dragon year two month ten day {1040-03-25} or {1041-03-14} [Note 1]
11 [北宋] 慶曆 2
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 5
壬午
black horse
1042
12 [北宋] 慶曆 3
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 6
癸未
black goat
1043
13 [北宋] 慶曆 4
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 7
甲申
green monkey
1044
14 [北宋] 慶曆 5
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 8
乙酉
green rooster
1045 N176 p.9: Chóngxī fourteen year two month
15 [北宋] 慶曆 6
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 9
丙戌
red dog
1046 KS26 l.14: Chóngxī fifteen red dog year
16 [北宋] 慶曆 7
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 10
丁亥
red pig
1047
17 [北宋] 慶曆 8
[西夏] 天授禮法延祚 11
戊子
yellow rat
1048
18 [北宋] 皇祐 1
[西夏] 延嗣寧國 1
己丑
yellow ox
1049
19 [北宋] 皇祐 2
[西夏] 天祐垂聖 1
庚寅
white tiger
1050
20 [北宋] 皇祐 3
[西夏] 天祐垂聖 2
辛卯
white rabbit
1051 KL07 l.39: Chóngxī twenty rabbit year ten month twenty-two day {1051-11-28}
21 [北宋] 皇祐 4
[西夏] 天祐垂聖 3
壬辰
black dragon
1052
22 [北宋] 皇祐 5
[西夏] 福聖承道 1
癸巳
black snake
1053
23 [北宋] 皇祐 6
[北宋] 至和 1
[西夏] 福聖承道 2
甲午
green horse
1054
24 [北宋] 至和 2
[西夏] 福聖承道 3
乙未
green goat
1055 KS05 l.1: Chóngxī twenty-four order-of-the-year green goat eight month red dog beginning four day yellow ox {1055-08-28}

Emperor Daozong 道宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
清寧
Qīngníng
1 [北宋] 至和 2
[西夏] 福聖承道 3
乙未
green goat
1055 KS05 l.2: Qīngníng first year eleven month ten day green rat {1055-12-01}
2 [北宋] 至和 3
[北宋] 嘉祐 1
[西夏] 福聖承道 4
丙申
red monkey
1056
3 [北宋] 嘉祐 2
[西夏] 奲都 1
丁酉
red rooster
1057
4 [北宋] 嘉祐 3
[西夏] 奲都 2
戊戌
yellow dog
1058
5 [北宋] 嘉祐 4
[西夏] 奲都 3
己亥
yellow pig
1059 KS02 l.27: Qīngníng five yellow pig spring two month fourteen day {1059-03-30}
KS32 l.11: Qīngníng five year
6 [北宋] 嘉祐 5
[西夏] 奲都 4
庚子
white rat
1060 KL13 l.16: Qīngníng six year
7 [北宋] 嘉祐 6
[西夏] 奲都 5
辛丑
white ox
1061 KL12 l.17: Qīngníng seven white ox year twelve month white dragon beginning twenty-one white rat day {1062-02-03}
8 [北宋] 嘉祐 7
[西夏] 奲都 6
壬寅
black tiger
1062 KL12 l.20: Qīngníng eight black tiger year nine month green snake beginning twenty-six white horse day {1062-10-31}
9 [北宋] 嘉祐 8
[西夏] 拱化 1
癸卯
black rabbit
1063 KL14 l.13: Qīngníng nine white rabbit head month twenty-eight day {1063-02-28} [Note 1]
10 [北宋] 治平 1
[西夏] 拱化 2
甲辰
green dragon
1064 KS32 l.12: Qīngníng ten year
咸雍
Xiányōng
1 [北宋] 治平 2
[西夏] 拱化 3
乙巳
green snake
1065 KL13 l.20: Xiányōng first year
KS32 l.12: Xiányōng first year
2 [北宋] 治平 3
[西夏] 拱化 4
丙午
red horse
1066 KS02 l.32: Xiányōng two green horse year four month ten day {1066-05-06}
KS15 l.10: Xiányōng two year [Note 1]
3 [北宋] 治平 4
[西夏] 拱化 5
[西夏] 乾道 1
丁未
red goat
1067
4 [北宋] 熙寧 1
[西夏] 乾道 2
戊申
yellow monkey
1068
5 [北宋] 熙寧 2
[西夏] 天賜禮盛國慶 1
己酉
yellow rooster
1069
6 [北宋] 熙寧 3
[西夏] 天賜禮盛國慶 2
庚戌
white dog
1070
7 [北宋] 熙寧 4
[西夏] 天賜禮盛國慶 3
辛亥
white pig
1071 KS32 l.12: Xiányōng seven year
8 [北宋] 熙寧 5
[西夏] 天賜禮盛國慶 4
壬子
black rat
1072
9 [北宋] 熙寧 6
[西夏] 天賜禮盛國慶 5
癸丑
black ox
1073
10 [北宋] 熙寧 7
[西夏] 天賜禮盛國慶 6
甲寅
green tiger
1074
大康
Dàkāng
1 [北宋] 熙寧 8
[西夏] 大安 1
乙卯
green rabbit
1075 KS07 l.4: Dàkāng first year order-of-the-year green rabbit eleven month yellow goat beginning three day white rooster {1075-12-13}
KS32 l.14: Dàkāng first year
2 [北宋] 熙寧 9
[西夏] 大安 2
丙辰
red dragon
1076 KS06 l.11: Dàkāng two red dragon year three month red dragon beginning six day white rooster {1076-04-11}
KS06 l.14: that year six month ten day green horse {1076-07-13}
KS32 l.16: Dàkāng two year
3 [北宋] 熙寧 10
[西夏] 大安 3
丁巳
red snake
1077 KL13 l.13: Dàkāng three year summer
4 [北宋] 元豐 1
[西夏] 大安 4
戊午
yellow horse
1078
5 [北宋] 元豐 2
[西夏] 大安 5
己未
yellow goat
1079
6 [北宋] 元豐 3
[西夏] 大安 6
庚申
white monkey
1080 KL05 l.13: Dàkāng six year extra eight month twenty-two day {1080-10-07}
KL13 l.21: Dàkāng six year
7 [北宋] 元豐 4
[西夏] 大安 7
辛酉
white rooster
1081 KL05 l.15: Dàkāng seven white rooster year three month yellow rat beginning fifteen black tiger day {1081-04-26}
KS10 l.7: Dàkāng seven year five month eighteen day {1081-06-27}
8 [北宋] 元豐 5
[西夏] 大安 8
壬戌
black dog
1082
9 [北宋] 元豐 6
[西夏] 大安 9
癸亥
black pig
1083
10 [北宋] 元豐 7
[西夏] 大安 10
甲子
green rat
1084 KL01 l.4: Dàkāng ten year five month day
KL12 l.29: Dàkāng ten year six month five day {1084-07-10}
大安
Dà'ān
1 [北宋] 元豐 8
[西夏] 大安 11
乙丑
green ox
1085 KS02 l.29: green ox year autumn
KS02 l.31: that year eleven month thirteen day {1085-12-02}
KS02 l.33: Dà'ān first green ox year nine month
2 [北宋] 元祐 1
[西夏] 天安禮定 1
[西夏] 天儀治平 1
丙寅
red tiger
1086 KL13 l.22: Dà'ān two year
3 [北宋] 元祐 2
[西夏] 天儀治平 2
丁卯
red rabbit
1087 KS02 l.35: Dà'ān three green rabbit year ten month twenty-four day {1087-11-21} [Note 1]
4 [北宋] 元祐 3
[西夏] 天儀治平 3
戊辰
yellow dragon
1088 KS02 l.43: Dà'ān four yellow dragon year head month yellow rooster beginning thirteen day {1088-02-08}
5 [北宋] 元祐 4
[西夏] 天儀治平 4
己巳
yellow snake
1089
6 [北宋] 元祐 5
[西夏] 天祐民安 1
庚午
white horse
1090 KL10 l.15: Dà'ān six year three month nineteen day {1090-04-21}
KS23 l.6: Dà'ān six white horse year five month three day {1090-06-03}
7 [北宋] 元祐 6
[西夏] 天祐民安 2
辛未
white goat
1091 KL09 l.21: Dà'ān seven year ten month sixteen day
KL14 l.14: Dà'ān seven year
8 [北宋] 元祐 7
[西夏] 天祐民安 3
壬申
black monkey
1092 KL09 l.24: Dà'ān eight black monkey year three month green monkey beginning two green rooster day {1092-04-11}
KS26 l.26: Dà'ān eight black monkey year head month twenty-three day {1092-03-03}
KS26 l.41: Dà'ān eight black monkey year eight month seven day {1092-09-11}
9 [北宋] 元祐 8
[西夏] 天祐民安 4
癸酉
black rooster
1093
10 [北宋] 元祐 9
[北宋] 紹聖 1
[西夏] 天祐民安 5
甲戌
green dog
1094 KS10 l.9: Dà'ān ten year
KS36 l.20: Dà'ān ten green dog year eight month nine day {1094-09-21}
KS36 l.21: that year eleven month twenty-three day {1095-01-02}
KS36 l.27: Dà'ān green dog year eleven month fifteen day {1094-12-25}
壽昌
Shòuchāng
1 [北宋] 紹聖 2
[西夏] 天祐民安 6
乙亥
green pig
1095 KL13 l.25: Shòuchāng first year
KS32 ll.19, 23: Shòuchāng first year
2 [北宋] 紹聖 3
[西夏] 天祐民安 7
丙子
red rat
1096
3 [北宋] 紹聖 4
[西夏] 天祐民安 8
丁丑
red ox
1097
4 [北宋] 紹聖 5
[北宋] 元符 1
[西夏] 永安 1
戊寅
yellow tiger
1098 KS32 l.3: Shòuchāng four yellow tiger year twelve month yellow tiger day {1098-12-29}
KS32 l.20: Shòuchāng four year twelve month four day {1098-12-29}
5 [北宋] 元符 2
[西夏] 永安 2
己卯
yellow rabbit
1099 KS32 l.3: yellow rabbit year four month black rooster beginning twenty-eight yellow rat day {1099-05-20} [Note 1]
KS32 l.48: Shòuchāng five year four month twenty-eight day {1099-05-20}
6 [北宋] 元符 3
[西夏] 永安 3
庚辰
white dragon
1100 KS15 l.17: Shòuchāng six year
KS27 l.14: Shòuchāng six year eleven month three day {1100-12-05}
7 [北宋] 建中靖國 1
[西夏] 貞觀 1
辛巳
white snake
1101 KS04 l.4: Shòuchāng seven year order-of-the-year white snake head month black dog beginning thirteen green dog {1101-02-12}
KS27 l.22: Shòuchāng seven white snake year two month black dragon beginning twenty-eight yellow goat day {1101-03-29} [Note 4]

Emperor Tianzuo 天祚帝
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
乾統
Qiántǒng
1 [北宋] 建中靖國 1
[西夏] 貞觀 1
辛巳
white snake
1101 KL13 ll.14, 26, 35: Qiántǒng first year
KS04 l.5: Qiántǒng first year four month ten day white rat day {1101-05-09}
KS04 l.6: that year six month twenty-three black rat {1101-07-20}
KS07 l.5: Qiántǒng first year six month twenty-three day {1101-07-20}
KS27 l.34: Qiántǒng first year two month twenty-eight day {1101-03-29}
2 [北宋] 崇寧 1
[西夏] 貞觀 2
壬午
black horse
1102
3 [北宋] 崇寧 2
[西夏] 貞觀 3
癸未
black goat
1103
4 [北宋] 崇寧 3
[西夏] 貞觀 4
甲申
green monkey
1104
5 [北宋] 崇寧 4
[西夏] 貞觀 5
乙酉
green rooster
1105
6 [北宋] 崇寧 5
[西夏] 貞觀 6
丙戌
red dog
1106
7 [北宋] 大觀 1
[西夏] 貞觀 7
丁亥
red pig
1107 KS15 l.21: Qiántǒng seven year first ten month nineteen day {1107-11-05} [Note 3]
8 [北宋] 大觀 2
[西夏] 貞觀 8
戊子
yellow rat
1108 KL13 l.28: eight year head month twenty-three day {1108-03-07}
KL13 l.29: that year six month three black horse day {1108-07-13}
KL13 l.46: Qiántǒng eight year five month day
KS15 l.23: yellow rat ten month eight day {1108-11-12}
9 [北宋] 大觀 3
[西夏] 貞觀 9
己丑
yellow ox
1109
10 [北宋] 大觀 4
[西夏] 貞觀 10
庚寅
white tiger
1110 KL14 l.16: Qiántǒng ten year
KS29 l.4: Qiántǒng ten year order-of-the-year white tiger extra eight month red rooster beginning twenty-five white rooster {1110-10-10}
KS29 l.4: ten month red monkey beginning five day white rat {1110-11-18}
KS29 l.5: eleven month green ox beginning eight day black monkey {1110-12-20}
天慶
Tiānqìng
1 [北宋] 政和 1
[西夏] 貞觀 11
辛卯
white rabbit
1111
2 [北宋] 政和 2
[西夏] 貞觀 12
壬辰
black dragon
1112
3 [北宋] 政和 3
[西夏] 貞觀 13
癸巳
black snake
1113 KL14 l.17: Tiānqìng three black snake year eleven month fifteen day {1113-12-24}
4 [北宋] 政和 4
[西夏] 雍寧 1
甲午
green horse
1114 KL14 l.25: Tiānqìng four green horse year white rat day
5 [北宋] 政和 5
[金] 收國 1
[西夏] 雍寧 2
乙未
green goat
1115 KS10 l.13: Tiānqìng five year spring ... head month eleven day {1115-02-07}
KS10 l.25: Tiānqìng five green goat year four month white rat beginning ten yellow rooster day {1115-05-05}
6 [北宋] 政和 6
[金] 收國 2
[西夏] 雍寧 3
丙申
red monkey
1116
7 [北宋] 政和 7
[金] 天輔 1
[西夏] 雍寧 4
丁酉
red rooster
1117
8 [北宋] 政和 8
[北宋] 重和 1
[金] 天輔 2
[西夏] 雍寧 5
戊戌
yellow dog
1118
9 [北宋] 重和 2
[北宋] 宣和 1
[金] 天輔 3
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 1
己亥
yellow pig
1119
10 [北宋] 宣和 2
[金] 天輔 4
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 2
庚子
white rat
1120
保大
Bǎodà
1 [北宋] 宣和 3
[金] 天輔 5
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 3
辛丑
white ox
1121
2 [北宋] 宣和 4
[金] 天輔 6
[北遼] 建福 (天福) 1
[北遼] 德興 1
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 4
壬寅
black tiger
1122
3 [北宋] 宣和 5
[金] 天輔 7
[金] 天會 1
[北遼] 神曆 1
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 5
癸卯
black rabbit
1123
4 [北宋] 宣和 6
[金] 天會 2
[西遼] 延慶 1
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 6
甲辰
green dragon
1124
5 [北宋] 宣和 7
[金] 天會 3
[西遼] 延慶 2
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 7
乙巳
green snake
1125

Jin Chronology (1115–1234)

Emperor Taizu 太祖
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
收國
Shōuguó
1 [北宋] 政和 5
[遼] 天慶 5
[西夏] 雍寧 2
乙未
green goat
1115
2 [北宋] 政和 6
[遼] 天慶 6
[西夏] 雍寧 3
丙申
red monkey
1116
天輔
Tiānfǔ
1 [北宋] 政和 7
[遼] 天慶 7
[西夏] 雍寧 4
丁酉
red rooster
1117
2 [北宋] 政和 8
[北宋] 重和 1
[遼] 天慶 8
[西夏] 雍寧 5
戊戌
yellow dog
1118
3 [北宋] 重和 2
[北宋] 宣和 1
[遼] 天慶 9
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 1
己亥
yellow pig
1119
4 [北宋] 宣和 2
[遼] 天慶 10
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 2
庚子
white rat
1120
5 [北宋] 宣和 3
[遼] 保大 1
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 3
辛丑
white ox
1121
6 [北宋] 宣和 4
[遼] 保大 2
[北遼] 建福 (天福) 1
[北遼] 德興 1
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 4
壬寅
black tiger
1122 KS23 l.10: Tiānfǔ six year head month sixteen day {1122-02-24}
7 [北宋] 宣和 5
[遼] 保大 3
[北遼] 神曆 1
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 5
癸卯
black rabbit
1123

Emperor Taizong 太宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
天會
Tiānhuì
1 [北宋] 宣和 5
[遼] 保大 3
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 5
癸卯
black rabbit
1123
2 [北宋] 宣和 6
[遼] 保大 4
[西遼] 延慶 1
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 6
甲辰
green dragon
1124 KS14 l.10: Tiānhuì two year
3 [北宋] 宣和 7
[遼] 保大 5
[西遼] 延慶 2
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 7
乙巳
green snake
1125
4 [北宋] 靖康 1
[西遼] 延慶 3
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 8
丙午
red horse
1126
5 [北宋] 靖康 2
[南宋] 建炎 1
[西遼] 延慶 4
[西夏] 元德 (天德) 9
[西夏] 正德 1
丁未
red goat
1127
6 [南宋] 建炎 2
[西遼] 延慶 5
[西夏] 正德 2
戊申
yellow monkey
1128
7 [南宋] 建炎 3
[西遼] 延慶 6
[西夏] 正德 3
己酉
yellow rooster
1129
8 [南宋] 建炎 4
[西遼] 延慶 7
[西夏] 正德 4
庚戌
white dog
1130
9 [南宋] 紹興 1
[西遼] 延慶 8
[西夏] 正德 5
辛亥
white pig
1131
10 [南宋] 紹興 2
[西遼] 延慶 9
[西夏] 正德 6
壬子
black rat
1132
11 [南宋] 紹興 3
[西遼] 延慶 10
[西夏] 正德 7
癸丑
black ox
1133 KS23 l.19: Tiānhuì eleven year
12 [南宋] 紹興 4
[西遼] 康國 1
[西夏] 正德 8
甲寅
green tiger
1134 KS38 l.5: Tiānhuì twelve green tiger year middle winter fourteen day {1135-12-20} [Note 5]
13 [南宋] 紹興 5
[西遼] 康國 2
[西夏] 大德 1
乙卯
green rabbit
1135
14 [南宋] 紹興 6
[西遼] 康國 3
[西夏] 大德 2
丙辰
red dragon
1136 KS23 l.19: Tiānhuì fourteen year
15 [南宋] 紹興 7
[西遼] 康國 4
[西夏] 大德 3
丁巳
red snake
1137 KS23 l.20: Tiānhuì fifteen year

Emperor Xizong 熙宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
天眷
Tiānjuàn
1 [南宋] 紹興 8
[西遼] 康國 5
[西夏] 大德 4
戊午
yellow horse
1138 KS23 l.20: Tiānjuàn first year
2 [南宋] 紹興 9
[西遼] 康國 6
[西夏] 大德 5
己未
yellow goat
1139 KS14 l.22: Tiānjuàn two year
KS23 l.20: Tiānjuàn two year
3 [南宋] 紹興 10
[西遼] 康國 7
[西夏] 大慶 1
庚申
white monkey
1140 KS23 l.21: Tiānjuàn three year
皇統
Huángtǒng
1 [南宋] 紹興 11
[西遼] 康國 8
[西夏] 大慶 2
辛酉
white rooster
1141 KS14 l.22: Huángtǒng first year
KS23 l.21: Huángtǒng first year
2 [南宋] 紹興 12
[西遼] 康國 9
[西夏] 大慶 3
壬戌
black dog
1142 KS23 l.21: Huángtǒng two year
3 [南宋] 紹興 13
[西遼] 康國 10
[西夏] 大慶 4
癸亥
black pig
1143 KS14 l.24: [...] pig year four month yellow horse beginning twenty-eight green rooster day {1143-05-14}
4 [南宋] 紹興 14
[西遼] 咸清 1
[西夏] 人慶 1
甲子
green rat
1144
5 [南宋] 紹興 15
[西遼] 咸清 2
[西夏] 人慶 2
乙丑
green ox
1145 KS23 l.21: Huángtǒng five year
6 [南宋] 紹興 16
[西遼] 咸清 3
[西夏] 人慶 3
丙寅
red tiger
1146
7 [南宋] 紹興 17
[西遼] 咸清 4
[西夏] 人慶 4
丁卯
red rabbit
1147 KS23 l.22: Huángtǒng seven year
8 [南宋] 紹興 18
[西遼] 咸清 5
[西夏] 人慶 5
戊辰
yellow dragon
1148 KS23 l.22: Huángtǒng eight year
9 [南宋] 紹興 19
[西遼] 咸清 6
[西夏] 天盛 1
己巳
yellow snake
1149

Emperor Hailingwang 海陵王
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
天德
Tiāndé
1 [南宋] 紹興 19
[西遼] 咸清 6
[西夏] 天盛 1
己巳
yellow snake
1149 KS23 l.23: Tiāndé first year
2 [南宋] 紹興 20
[西遼] 咸清 7
[西夏] 天盛 2
庚午
white horse
1150 KS23 l.24: Tiāndé two year head month
KS23 l.45: that time white horse year nine month day
KS23 l.50: Tiāndé two year order-of-the-year white horse nine month green dog beginning nineteen day {1150-10-11}
3 [南宋] 紹興 21
[西遼] 紹興 1
[西夏] 天盛 3
辛未
white goat
1151
4 [南宋] 紹興 22
[西遼] 紹興 2
[西夏] 天盛 4
壬申
black monkey
1152
5 [南宋] 紹興 23
[西遼] 紹興 3
[西夏] 天盛 5
癸酉
black rooster
1153
貞元
Zhēnyuán
1 [南宋] 紹興 23
[西遼] 紹興 3
[西夏] 天盛 5
癸酉
black rooster
1153
2 [南宋] 紹興 24
[西遼] 紹興 4
[西夏] 天盛 6
甲戌
green dog
1154
3 [南宋] 紹興 25
[西遼] 紹興 5
[西夏] 天盛 7
乙亥
green pig
1155
4 [南宋] 紹興 26
[西遼] 紹興 6
[西夏] 天盛 8
丙子
red rat
1156
正隆
Zhènglóng
1 [南宋] 紹興 26
[西遼] 紹興 6
[西夏] 天盛 8
丙子
red rat
1156
2 [南宋] 紹興 27
[西遼] 紹興 7
[西夏] 天盛 9
丁丑
red ox
1157
3 [南宋] 紹興 28
[西遼] 紹興 8
[西夏] 天盛 10
戊寅
yellow tiger
1158
4 [南宋] 紹興 29
[西遼] 紹興 9
[西夏] 天盛 11
己卯
yellow rabbit
1159
5 [南宋] 紹興 30
[西遼] 紹興 10
[西夏] 天盛 12
庚辰
white dragon
1160
6 [南宋] 紹興 31
[西遼] 紹興 11
[西夏] 天盛 13
辛巳
white snake
1161

Emperor Shizong 世宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
大定
Dàdìng
1 [南宋] 紹興 31
[西遼] 紹興 11
[西夏] 天盛 13
辛巳
white snake
1161
2 [南宋] 紹興 32
[西遼] 紹興 12
[西夏] 天盛 14
壬午
black horse
1162
3 [南宋] 隆興 1
[西遼] 紹興 13
[西夏] 天盛 15
癸未
black goat
1163
4 [南宋] 隆興 2
[西遼] 崇福 1
[西夏] 天盛 16
甲申
green monkey
1164
5 [南宋] 乾道 1
[西遼] 崇福 2
[西夏] 天盛 17
乙酉
green rooster
1165
6 [南宋] 乾道 2
[西遼] 崇福 3
[西夏] 天盛 18
丙戌
red dog
1166
7 [南宋] 乾道 3
[西遼] 崇福 4
[西夏] 天盛 19
丁亥
red pig
1167
8 [南宋] 乾道 4
[西遼] 崇福 5
[西夏] 天盛 20
戊子
yellow rat
1168
9 [南宋] 乾道 5
[西遼] 崇福 6
[西夏] 天盛 21
己丑
yellow ox
1169
10 [南宋] 乾道 6
[西遼] 崇福 7
[西夏] 乾祐 1
庚寅
white tiger
1170 KS14 l.38: Dàdìng ten white tiger year twelve month red horse beginning twenty-five white horse day {1171-02-01}
11 [南宋] 乾道 7
[西遼] 崇福 8
[西夏] 乾祐 2
辛卯
white rabbit
1171
12 [南宋] 乾道 8
[西遼] 崇福 9
[西夏] 乾祐 3
壬辰
black dragon
1172
13 [南宋] 乾道 9
[西遼] 崇福 10
[西夏] 乾祐 4
癸巳
black snake
1173
14 [南宋] 淳熙 1
[西遼] 崇福 11
[西夏] 乾祐 5
甲午
green horse
1174
15 [南宋] 淳熙 2
[西遼] 崇福 12
[西夏] 乾祐 6
乙未
green goat
1175
16 [南宋] 淳熙 3
[西遼] 崇福 13
[西夏] 乾祐 7
丙申
red monkey
1176
17 [南宋] 淳熙 4
[西遼] 崇福 14
[西夏] 乾祐 8
丁酉
red rooster
1177
18 [南宋] 淳熙 5
[西遼] 天禧 1
[西夏] 乾祐 9
戊戌
yellow dog
1178
19 [南宋] 淳熙 6
[西遼] 天禧 2
[西夏] 乾祐 10
己亥
yellow pig
1179
20 [南宋] 淳熙 7
[西遼] 天禧 3
[西夏] 乾祐 11
庚子
white rat
1180
21 [南宋] 淳熙 8
[西遼] 天禧 4
[西夏] 乾祐 12
辛丑
white ox
1181
22 [南宋] 淳熙 9
[西遼] 天禧 5
[西夏] 乾祐 13
壬寅
black tiger
1182
23 [南宋] 淳熙 10
[西遼] 天禧 6
[西夏] 乾祐 14
癸卯
black rabbit
1183
24 [南宋] 淳熙 11
[西遼] 天禧 7
[西夏] 乾祐 15
甲辰
green dragon
1184
25 [南宋] 淳熙 12
[西遼] 天禧 8
[西夏] 乾祐 16
乙巳
green snake
1185
26 [南宋] 淳熙 13
[西遼] 天禧 9
[西夏] 乾祐 17
丙午
red horse
1186
27 [南宋] 淳熙 14
[西遼] 天禧 10
[西夏] 乾祐 18
丁未
red goat
1187
28 [南宋] 淳熙 15
[西遼] 天禧 11
[西夏] 乾祐 19
戊申
yellow monkey
1188
29 [南宋] 淳熙 16
[西遼] 天禧 12
[西夏] 乾祐 20
己酉
yellow rooster
1189

Emperor Zhangzong 章宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
明昌
Míngchāng
1 [南宋] 紹熙 1
[西遼] 天禧 13
[西夏] 乾祐 21
庚戌
white dog
1190
2 [南宋] 紹熙 2
[西遼] 天禧 14
[西夏] 乾祐 22
辛亥
white pig
1191
3 [南宋] 紹熙 3
[西遼] 天禧 15
[西夏] 乾祐 23
壬子
black rat
1192
4 [南宋] 紹熙 4
[西遼] 天禧 16
[西夏] 乾祐 24
癸丑
black ox
1193
5 [南宋] 紹熙 5
[西遼] 天禧 17
[西夏] 天慶 1
甲寅
green tiger
1194
6 [南宋] 慶元 1
[西遼] 天禧 18
[西夏] 天慶 2
乙卯
green rabbit
1195
7 [南宋] 慶元 2
[西遼] 天禧 19
[西夏] 天慶 3
丙辰
red dragon
1196
承安
Chéng'ān
1 [南宋] 慶元 2
[西遼] 天禧 19
[西夏] 天慶 3
丙辰
red dragon
1196
2 [南宋] 慶元 3
[西遼] 天禧 20
[西夏] 天慶 4
丁巳
red snake
1197
3 [南宋] 慶元 4
[西遼] 天禧 21
[西夏] 天慶 5
戊午
yellow horse
1198
4 [南宋] 慶元 5
[西遼] 天禧 22
[西夏] 天慶 6
己未
yellow goat
1199
5 [南宋] 慶元 6
[西遼] 天禧 23
[西夏] 天慶 7
庚申
white monkey
1200
泰和
Tàihé
1 [南宋] 嘉泰 1
[西遼] 天禧 24
[西夏] 天慶 8
辛酉
white rooster
1201
2 [南宋] 嘉泰 2
[西遼] 天禧 25
[西夏] 天慶 9
壬戌
black dog
1202
3 [南宋] 嘉泰 3
[西遼] 天禧 26
[西夏] 天慶 10
癸亥
black pig
1203
4 [南宋] 嘉泰 4
[西遼] 天禧 27
[西夏] 天慶 11
甲子
green rat
1204
5 [南宋] 開禧 1
[西遼] 天禧 28
[西夏] 天慶 12
乙丑
green ox
1205
6 [南宋] 開禧 2
[西遼] 天禧 29
[西夏] 天慶 13
[西夏] 應天 1
丙寅
red tiger
1206
7 [南宋] 開禧 3
[西遼] 天禧 30
[西夏] 應天 2
丁卯
red rabbit
1207
8 [南宋] 嘉定 1
[西遼] 天禧 31
[西夏] 應天 3
戊辰
yellow dragon
1208

Prince Shao of Wei 衛紹王
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
大安
Dà'ān
1 [南宋] 嘉定 2
[西遼] 天禧 32
[西夏] 應天 4
己巳
yellow snake
1209
2 [南宋] 嘉定 3
[西遼] 天禧 33
[西夏] 皇建 1
庚午
white horse
1210
3 [南宋] 嘉定 4
[西遼] 天禧 34
[西夏] 皇建 2
[西夏] 光定 1
辛未
white goat
1211
崇慶
Chóngqìng
1 [南宋] 嘉定 5
[西夏] 光定 2
壬申
black monkey
1212
2 [南宋] 嘉定 6
[西夏] 光定 3
癸酉
black rooster
1213
至寧
Zhìníng
1 [南宋] 嘉定 6
[西夏] 光定 3
癸酉
black rooster
1213

Emperor Xuanzong 宣宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
貞祐
Zhēnyòu
1 [南宋] 嘉定 6
[西夏] 光定 3
癸酉
black rooster
1213
2 [南宋] 嘉定 7
[西夏] 光定 4
甲戌
green dog
1214
3 [南宋] 嘉定 8
[東夏] 天泰 1
[西夏] 光定 5
乙亥
green pig
1215
4 [南宋] 嘉定 9
[東夏] 天泰 2
[西夏] 光定 6
丙子
red rat
1216
5 [南宋] 嘉定 10
[東夏] 天泰 3
[西夏] 光定 7
丁丑
red ox
1217
興定
Xīngdìng
1 [南宋] 嘉定 10
[東夏] 天泰 3
[西夏] 光定 7
丁丑
red ox
1217
2 [南宋] 嘉定 11
[東夏] 天泰 4
[西夏] 光定 8
戊寅
yellow tiger
1218
3 [南宋] 嘉定 12
[東夏] 天泰 5
[西夏] 光定 9
己卯
yellow rabbit
1219
4 [南宋] 嘉定 13
[東夏] 天泰 6
[西夏] 光定 10
庚辰
white dragon
1220
5 [南宋] 嘉定 14
[東夏] 天泰 7
[西夏] 光定 11
辛巳
white snake
1221
6 [南宋] 嘉定 15
[東夏] 天泰 8
[西夏] 光定 12
壬午
black horse
1222
元光
Yuánguāng
1 [南宋] 嘉定 15
[東夏] 天泰 8
[西夏] 光定 12
壬午
black horse
1222
2 [南宋] 嘉定 16
[東夏] 天泰 9
[西夏] 光定 13
[西夏] 乾定 1
癸未
black goat
1223

Emperor Aizong 哀宗
Era Era Year Other Eras Cyclical
Year
Julian
Year
Inscriptional Date
正大
Zhèngdà
1 [南宋] 嘉定 17
[東夏] 大同 1
[西夏] 乾定 2
甲申
green monkey
1224
2 [南宋] 寶慶 1
[東夏] 大同 2
[西夏] 乾定 3
乙酉
green rooster
1225
3 [南宋] 寶慶 2
[東夏] 大同 3
[西夏] 乾定 4
[西夏] 寶義 1
丙戌
red dog
1226
4 [南宋] 寶慶 3
[東夏] 大同 4
[西夏] 寶義 2
丁亥
red pig
1227
5 [南宋] 紹定 1
[東夏] 大同 5
戊子
yellow rat
1228
6 [南宋] 紹定 2
[東夏] 大同 6
己丑
yellow ox
1229
7 [南宋] 紹定 3
[東夏] 大同 7
庚寅
white tiger
1230
8 [南宋] 紹定 4
[東夏] 大同 8
辛卯
white rabbit
1231
9 [南宋] 紹定 5
[東夏] 大同 9
壬辰
black dragon
1232
開興
Kāixīng
1 [南宋] 紹定 5
[東夏] 大同 9
壬辰
black dragon
1232
天興
Tiānxīng
1 [南宋] 紹定 5
[東夏] 大同 9
壬辰
black dragon
1232
2 [南宋] 紹定 6
[東夏] 大同 10
癸巳
black snake
1233
3 [南宋] 端平 1 甲午
green horse
1234


Notes

Note 1

There are a suprisingly large number of impossible dates, where a cyclical year is incorrect for the specified era year, or where a cyclical day is incorrect for the specified calendrical month and day.

  • KL05 l.10: "Chóngxī six yellow tiger year" should be either "Chóngxī six red ox year" (1037) or "Chóngxī seven yellow tiger year" (1038)
  • KL14 l.13: "Qīngníng nine white rabbit [year]" should be "Qīngníng nine black rabbit [year]" (1063)
  • KS02 l.32: "Xiányōng two green horse year" should be "Xiányōng two red horse year" (1066)
  • KS02 l.35: "Dà'ān three green rabbit year" should be "Dà'ān three red rabbit year"(1087)
  • KS32 l.3: "twenty-eight yellow rat day" should be "twenty-eight white rat day" {1099-05-20}
  • KS32 l.10: "Chóngxī ten white dragon year" should be either "Chóngxī nine white dragon year" (1040) or "Chóngxī ten white snake year" (1041)
  • KS36 l.8: "Tàipíng three red pig year" should be "Tàipíng three black pig year" (1023)

Note 2

Normally epitaphs refer to months by their ordinal number only, and refer to days either by their ordinal number or by their ordinal number and the corresponding cyclical day. However, in one place only in the Epitaph for Yelü Changyun (KL12) the date is referred to by a cyclical month and a cyclical day only: "Tǒnghé eighteen white rat year green dog month white goat day" [Chinese 統和十八庚子年甲戌月辛未日] (KL12 l.10). Unfortunately this date does not make sense. As there are twelve months in a year, cyclical months always correspond to the same calendrical month (intercalary months share the same cyclical month as the pre-intercalary month), and only occur on certain cyclical years. A dog month always corresponds to the 9th month (or intercalary 9th month), but the 9th month in a white rat [庚子] year can only be a red dog [丙戌] month. Moreover, there was no white goat [辛未] day during the 9th month of Tǒnghé 18. In Tǒnghé 18 a white goat day only occured during the yellow rabbit [己卯] month (on the 23rd day of the 2nd month), the white snake [辛巳] month (on the 24th day of the 4th month), the black goat [癸未] month (on the 26th day of the 6th month), the green rooster [乙酉] month (on the 27th day of the 8th month), the red pig [丁亥] month (on the 28th day of the 10th month), or the yellow ox [己丑] month (on the 28th day of the 12th month). Assuming that the "Tǒnghé eighteen white rat year" part of the date is correct (Tǒnghé 18 is indeed a white rat year), then there are three possibilities:

  1. Green dog [甲戌] month is an error for red dog [丙戌] month, and white goat [辛未] day is an error for white snake [辛巳] day (7th day of the 9th month), white rabbit [辛卯] day (17th day of the 9th month) or white ox [辛丑] day (27th day of the 9th month)
  2. Green dog [甲戌] month is an error for red dog [丙戌] month, and white goat [辛未] day is an error for black goat [癸未] day (9th day of the 9th month) or green goat [乙未] day (21st day of the 9th month)
  3. Green dog [甲戌] month is an error for green rooster [乙酉] month, and white goat [辛未] day is correct (27th day of the 8th month) {1000-09-27}

Possibilities 1 & 2 require there to be two mistaken characters, but Possibility 3 only requires one mistaken character, so applying Occam's razor Possibility 3 should be preferred. I have not seen a clear reproduction of the original inscription, but it is possible that a damaged "rooster" character could be misidentified as the character for "dog" (or the engraver misread "rooster" in the manuscript original as "dog").

Note, Liu Fengzhu and Wang Yunlong discuss this date (Liu & Wang 2004:67), but they seem to have made a mistake in their calculations. They agree that a dog month is the 9th month but that the 9th month of Tǒnghé 18 should be a red dog month; and they correctly state that the 1st day of the 9th month of Tǒnghé 18 is a green pig [乙亥] day. However, they somehow extrapolate the white goat day to be the 26th day of the 9th month, which is actually a white rat [庚子] day.


Note 3

The Khitan Small Script Epitaph for the Prefect of Zezhou (KS15) states that the Prefect of Zezhou died on the 19th day of the first 10th month of the 7th year of the Qiántǒng era (5th November 1107 in the Julian calendar). The "10th month" is here qualified by "first" because the following month is an intercalary month (the "extra 10th month").

In Chinese, the month immediately preceding an intercalary month is not indicated as such (the "intercalary 4th month" 閏四月 is preceded by the plain "4th month" 四月), but this inscription suggests that in Khitan the month immediately preceding an intercalary month is prefixed by the word "first" (Khitan Small Script ). Presumably in the Khitan Large Script a pre-intercalary month could also be qualified by the word "first" (), although I have not yet found any examples of this usage.


Note 4

The Epitaph for Yelü Dilie refers to the 28th yellow goat day on the 2nd month of Shòuchāng 7 (KS27 l.22). In fact, the Shòuchāng era was changed to the Qiántǒng era on the 1st day of the 2nd month.


Note 5

The Record of the Younger Brother of the Emperor of the Great Jin Dynasty (KS38) specifies the 11th month using the designation "middle winter". This method of referring to months is not attested in other Khitan inscriptions.



Dates

The text of the Khitan dates is given below. For ease of comparison, glyph variants have been standardized where appropriate.


Liao Dynasty Khitan Large Script Dates

921 973 1000 1004 1011 1033 1035 1037 1041 1045 1051 1060 1061 1062 1063 1065 1077 1080 1080 1081 1084 1084 1086 1090 1091 1091 1092 1095 1101 1108 1108 1108 1110 1113 1114
神冊六年 保寧五年 統和十八年 統和二十二年 統和二十九年 重熙二年 重熙四年 重熙六年 重熙十年 重熙十四年 重熙二十年 清寧六年 清寧七年 清寧八年 清寧九年 咸雍元年 大康三年 大康六年 大康六年 大康七年 大康十年 大康十年 大安二年 大安六年 大安七年 大安七年 大安八年 壽昌元年 乾統元年 乾統八年 乾統八年 乾統八年 乾統十年 天慶三年 天慶四年
Shéncè 6 Bǎoníng 5 Tǒnghé 18 Tǒnghé 22 Tǒnghé 29 Chóngxī 2 Chóngxī 4 Chóngxī 6 Chóngxī 10 Chóngxī 14 Chóngxī 20 Qīngníng 6 Qīngníng 7 Qīngníng 8 Qīngníng 9 Xiányōng 1 Dàkāng 3 Dàkāng 6 Dàkāng 6 Dàkāng 7 Dàkāng 10 Dàkāng 10 Dà'ān 2 Dà'ān 6 Dà'ān 7 Dà'ān 7 Dà'ān 8 Shòuchāng 1 Qiántǒng 1 Qiántǒng 8 Qiántǒng 8 Qiántǒng 8 Qiántǒng 10 Tiānqìng 3 Tiānqìng 4
KL13 l.6 KL08 l.7 KL12 l.10 SealA KL08 l.11 KL09 l.6 KL08 l.15 KL05 l.10 KL08 l.19 N176 p.9 KL07 l.39 KL13 l.16 KL12 l.17 KL12 l.20 KL14 l.13 KL13 l.20 KL13 l.13 KL05 l.13 KL13 l.21 KL05 l.15 KL12 l.29 KL01 l.4 KL13 l.22 KL10 l.15 KL09 l.21 KL14 l.14 KL09 l.24 KL13 l.25 KL13 ll.14, 26, 35 KL13 l.28 KL13 l.29 KL13 l.46 KL14 l.16 KL14 l.17 KL14 l.25

































































































































































































































































































































Liao Dynasty Khitan Small Script Dates

983 1023 1026 1041 1046 1055 1055 1059 1059 1064 1065 1066 1066 1071 1075 1075 1076 1076 1076 1081 1085 1085 1085 1087 1088 1090 1092 1092 1094 1094 1094 1094 1095 1098 1098 1099 1099 1100 1100 1101 1101 1101 1101 1101 1101 1107 1108 1110 1110 1110 1115 1115
統和元年 太平三年 太平六年 重熙十年 重熙十五年 重熙二十四年 清寧元年 清寧五年 清寧五年 清寧十年 咸雍元年 咸雍二年 咸雍二年 咸雍七年 大康元年 大康元年 大康二年 大康二年 大康二年 大康七年 大安元年 大安元年 大安元年 大安三年 大安四年 大安六年 大安八年 大安八年 大安十年 大安十年 大安十年 大安十年 壽昌元年 壽昌四年 壽昌四年 壽昌五年 壽昌五年 壽昌六年 壽昌六年 壽昌七年 壽昌七年 乾統元年 乾統元年 乾統元年 乾統元年 乾統七年 乾統八年 乾統十年 乾統十年 乾統十年 天慶五年 天慶五年
Tǒnghé 1 Tàipíng 3 Tàipíng 6 Chóngxī 10 Chóngxī 15 Chóngxī 24 Qīngníng 1 Qīngníng 5 Qīngníng 5 Qīngníng 10 Xiányōng 1 Xiányōng 2 Xiányōng 2 Xiányōng 7 Dàkāng 1 Dàkāng 1 Dàkāng 2 Dàkāng 2 Dàkāng 2 Dàkāng 7 Dà'ān 1 Dà'ān 1 Dà'ān 1 Dà'ān 3 Dà'ān 4 Dà'ān 6 Dà'ān 8 Dà'ān 8 Dà'ān 10 Dà'ān 10 Dà'ān 10 Dà'ān 10 Shòuchāng 1 Shòuchāng 4 Shòuchāng 4 Shòuchāng 5 Shòuchāng 5 Shòuchāng 6 Shòuchāng 6 Shòuchāng 7 Shòuchāng 7 Qiántǒng 1 Qiántǒng 1 Qiántǒng 1 Qiántǒng 1 Qiántǒng 7 Qiántǒng 8 Qiántǒng 10 Qiántǒng 10 Qiántǒng 10 Tiānqìng 5 Tiānqìng 5
KS27 l.5 KS36 l.8 KS26 l.13 KS32 l.10 KS26 l.14 KS05 l.1 KS05 l.2 KS02 l.27 KS32 l.11 KS32 l.12 KS32 l.12 KS02 l.32 KS15 l.10 KS32 l.12 KS07 l.4 KS32 l.14 KS06 l.11 KS06 l.14 KS32 l.16 KS10 l.7 KS02 l.29 KS02 l.31 KS02 l.33 KS02 l.35 KS02 l.43 KS23 l.6 KS26 l.26 KS26 l.41 KS10 l.9 KS36 l.20 KS36 l.21 KS36 l.27 KS32 ll.19, 23 KS32 l.3 KS32 l.20 KS32 l.3 KS32 l.48 KS15 l.17 KS27 l.14 KS04 l.4 KS27 l.22 KS04 l.5 KS04 l.6 KS07 l.5 KS27 l.34 KS15 l.21 KS15 l.23 KS29 l.4 KS29 l.4 KS29 l.5 KS10 l.13 KS10 l.25



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Jin Dynasty Khitan Small Script Dates

1122 1124 1133 1134 1136 1137 1138 1139 1139 1140 1141 1141 1142 1143 1145 1147 1148 1149 1150 1150 1150 1170
天輔六年 天會二年 天會十一年 天會十二年 天會十四年 天會十五年 天眷元年 天眷二年 天眷二年 天眷三年 皇統元年 皇統元年 皇統二年 皇統三年 皇統五年 皇統七年 皇統八年 天德元年 天德二年 天德二年 天德二年 大定十年
Tiānfǔ 6 Tiānhuì 2 Tiānhuì 11 Tiānhuì 12 Tiānhuì 14 Tiānhuì 15 Tiānjuàn 1 Tiānjuàn 2 Tiānjuàn 2 Tiānjuàn 3 Huángtǒng 1 Huángtǒng 1 Huángtǒng 2 Huángtǒng 3 Huángtǒng 5 Huángtǒng 7 Huángtǒng 8 Tiāndé 1 Tiāndé 2 Tiāndé 2 Tiāndé 2 Dàdìng 10
KS23 l.10 KS14 l.10 KS23 l.19 KS38 l.5 KS23 l.19 KS23 l.20 KS23 l.20 KS14 l.22 KS23 l.20 KS23 l.21 KS14 l.22 KS23 l.21 KS23 l.21 KS14 l.24 KS23 l.21 KS23 l.22 KS23 l.22 KS23 l.23 KS23 l.24 KS23 l.45 KS23 l.50 KS14 l.38
























































































































































































































































































Sources

The tables below list all the Khitan memorial inscriptions that I know of. Many of the Khitan inscriptions are either unpublished or I have been unable to access the relevant publication, so only 8 out of 18 Khitan Large Script inscriptions and 16 out of 38 Khitan Small Script inscriptions are included in the chronologies in this blog post. Those inscriptions which I have seen the full or partial text of are indicated with an asterisk (some of these do not include a date and so do not occur in the chronology). For further details on Khitan inscriptions, see the Wikipedia article List of Khitan inscriptions. This map shows the approximate location of all Khitan inscriptions.

In addition to epitaphs and other monumental inscriptions, the following items with dates have also been included in the chronology :

  • N176: Large Khitan Script manuscript codex held at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nova N 176*;
  • SealA: Khitan Large Script inscription on the back of a bronze seal inscribed "Seal of the Vice Commander-in-chief".

* Nova N 176 has not been published, and the only page of it that I have only seen is the half-leaf shown at the top of this post, which includes a single date. It is very likely that other dates are recorded elsewhere in the manuscript.


Khitan Large Script Inscriptions

No. Description Location Date
KL01* Commemoration of a battle victory by Hutenu (Yelü Zhaosan 耶律趙三) Khentii Province, Mongolia 1084
KL02* Inscribed sarcophagous Jianchang County, Liaoning
KL03 Memorial at Jing'an Temple (靜安寺) erected by the Lady of Lanling Commandery (蘭陵郡夫人) Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia 1072
KL04 Epitaph for an unknown person Unknown 1056
KL05* Epitaph for Court Attendant Dorlipun 多羅里本郎君 (1037–1080) Unknown 1081
KL06 Epitaph for Court Attendant Li Ai 李爱郎君 Unknown 1176
KL07 Epitaph for the Grand Preceptor (太師) Unknown 1056
KL08* Epitaph for the Grand Prince of the North 北大王 (Yelü Wanxin 耶律萬辛, 972–1041) Ar Horqin Banner, Inner Mongolia 1041
KL09* Epitaph for the Princess of Yongning Commandery 永寧郡公主 (1033–1091) Bairin Left Banner, Inner Mongolia 1092
KL10* Epitaph for Xiao Paolu 蕭袍魯 (1018–1089) Faku County, Liaoning 1090
KL11 Epitaph for Xiao Xiaozhong 蕭孝忠 (d.1089) Huludao, Liaoning 1089
KL12* Epitaph for Yelü Changyun 耶律昌允 (1000–1061) Chifeng, Inner Mongolia 1062
KL13* Epitaph for Yelü Qi 耶律褀 (1033–1108) Ar Horqin Banner, Inner Mongolia 1108
KL14* Epitaph for Yelü Xinie 耶律習涅 (1063–1114) Bairin Left Banner, Inner Mongolia 1114
KL15 Epitaph for Yelü Yanning 耶律延寧 (946–985) Chaoyang County, Liaoning 986
KL16* Memorial from the mausoleum of Emperor Taizu of Liao (r.916–926) Bairin Left Banner, Inner Mongolia
KL17* Memorial from the ruins of the Liao capital Shangjing Bairin Left Banner, Inner Mongolia
KL18 Monumental stone inscription Dornogovi Province, Mongolia 1058

Khitan Small Script Inscriptions

No. Description Location Date
KS01* Epitaph for an unknown person Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County, Liaoning
KS02* Epitaph for Court Attendant Yelü Yongning 耶律永寧郎君 (1059–1087) Harqin Banner, Inner Mongolia 1088
KS03 Epitaph for Deputy Administrator Yelü 耶律副部署 (Yelü Wumo 耶律兀没, 1031–1077) Ar Horqin Banner, Inner Mongolia 1102
KS04* Epitaph for Emperor Daozong of Liao 道宗 (1032–1101) Bairin Right Banner, Inner Mongolia 1101
KS05* Epitaph for Emperor Xingzong of Liao 興宗 (1015–1054) Bairin Right Banner, Inner Mongolia 1055
KS06* Epitaph for Empress Renyi 仁懿皇后 (?–1076) Bairin Right Banner, Inner Mongolia 1076
KS07* Epitaph for Empress Xuanyi 宣懿皇后 (1040–1075) Bairin Right Banner, Inner Mongolia 1101
KS08 Epitaph for Gu Shizhong (1015–1090) Unknown 1091
KS09 Epitaph for Madam Han 韓氏, second wife of the imperial son-in-law, Xiao Temei 蕭特每 Unknown 1078
KS10* Epitaph for Madam Yelü 耶律氏 (Yelü Tabuye 耶律挞不也) (1081–1115), the daughter of Yelü Dilie 耶律敵烈 Ongniud Banner, Inner Mongolia 1115
KS11 Epitaph for the Grand Preceptor Shilu 室魯太師 Jarud Banner, Inner Mongolia 1100
KS12 Epitaph for Xiao Hudujin 萧胡睹堇 (1041–1091) Unknown 1091
KS13 Epitaph for the Imperial Consort of Song and Wei 宋魏國妃 (1056–1080), the wife of Yelü Hongben Bairin Right Banner, Inner Mongolia 1110
KS14* Epitaph for the Jin Dynasty Defense Commissioner of Bozhou 金代博州防禦使 (1079–1142) Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia 1171
KS15* Epitaph for the Prefect of Zezhou 澤州刺史 (?–1107) Bairin Left Banner, Inner Mongolia 1108
KS16 Epitaph for the Prince of Liang 梁國王 Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County, Liaoning 1107
KS17 Epitaph for the Prince of Xu 許王 Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County, Liaoning 1105
KS18 Epitaph for Prince Wotela 斡特剌 (1073–1099) Unknown 1099
KS19 Epitaph for Xiao Dilu 蕭敵魯 (1061–?) Unknown 1114
KS20 Epitaph for Xiao Linggong 蕭令公 (Xiao Fuliu 蕭富留) Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County, Liaoning 1057
KS21 Epitaph for Xiao Taishan 蕭太山 and Princess Yongqing 永清公主 Unknown
KS22 Epitaph for Xiao Tuguci 蕭圖古辭 Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County, Liaoning 1068
KS23* Epitaph for Xiao Zhonggong 蕭仲恭 Xinglong County, Hebei 1150
KS24 Epitaph for Yelü Jiuli 耶律糺里 or Yelü Gui 耶律貴 (1061–1102) Unknown 1102
KS25 Epitaph for Yelü Cite 耶律慈特 (1043–1081) Ar Horqin Banner, Inner Mongolia 1082
KS26* Epitaph for Yelü Dilie 耶律迪烈 or Han Dilie 韓迪烈 (1026–1092) Jarud Banner, Inner Mongolia 1092
KS27* Epitaph for Yelü Dilie 耶律敵烈 or Han Dilie 韓敵烈 (1034–1100) Bairin Left Banner, Inner Mongolia 1101
KS28 Epitaph for Yelü Gaoshi 耶律高十 or Han Gaoshi 韓高十 (1015–?) Bairin Left Banner, Inner Mongolia
KS29* Epitaph for Imperial Grand Uncle (皇太叔祖) Yelü Hongben 耶律弘本 (1041–1110) Bairin Right Banner, Inner Mongolia 1110
KS30 Epitaph for Yelü Hongbian 耶律弘辨 or Yelü Hongyong 耶律弘用 (1054–1086) Jarud Banner, Inner Mongolia 1100
KS31 Epitaph for Yelü Jue 耶律玦 (1014–1070) Unknown 1072
KS32* Epitaph for Yelü Nu 耶律奴 (1041–1098) Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County, Liaoning 1099
KS33 Epitaph for Yelü Renxian 耶律仁先 Beipiao, Liaoning 1072
KS34 Epitaph for Yelü Taishi 耶律太師 (1038–1101) Unknown
KS35 Epitaph for Yelü Xiangwen 耶律詳穩 (1010–1091) Unknown 1091
KS36* Epitaph for Yelü Zhixian 耶律智先 Beipiao, Liaoning 1094
KS37 Epitaph for Yelü Zongjiao 耶律宗教 (992–1053) Beizhen, Liaoning 1053
KS38* Record of the Younger Brother of the Emperor of the Great Jin Dynasty (大金皇弟都統經略郎君行記) Qian County, Shaanxi 1134
KS39* Inscriptions on the Pagoda of Ten Thousand Copies of the Flower Garland Sutra (萬部華嚴經塔) Hohhot, Inner Mongolia


Bibliography

  • Kane, Daniel. The Kitan Language and Script. Brill, 2009. ISBN 9789004168299
  • Liu Fengzhu 劉鳳翥 and Wang Yunlong 王雲龍. "Research on the Khitan large script 'Epitaph for Yelü Changyun'" 契丹大字《耶律昌允墓誌铭》之研; Yenching Journal of Chinese Studies 燕京學報 vol.17 (2004): 61–99.
  • Zaytsev, V. P. A Manuscript Codex Written in the Khitan Large Script from the Collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences [Рукописная книга большого киданьского письма из коллекции Института восточных рукописей РАН]; Written Monuments of the Orient 2 (15) (Autumn-Winter 2011): 130–150.

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